An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
fallacy
  تیتال   
titâl

Fr.: erreur, illusion, faux raisonnement   

Logic: An → error in → reasoning that renders an → argument logically → invalid such as affirming the → consequent and → denying the → antecedent.

From L. fallacia "deception," from fallere "to deceive, trick, cheat; fail, be defective."

Titâl (Dehxodâ) "deceit; deceiving speech, fallacious words;" cf. Tabari titâl hâ kərdan "to deceive (somebody) wheedlingly," Pashtu titâl "duplicity, guile, deceit, fraud."

false
  زیف   
zif (#)

Fr.: faux   

1) Not true or correct; erroneous.
2) Not properly, accurately, or honestly made, done, or adjusted.
false color, → false dawn, → false nucleus, → false vacuum.

From O.Fr. fals, faus, from L. falsus "deceived, erroneous, mistaken," p.p. of fallere "to deceive, disappoint."

Zif, from Tâleši saf "wrong," from Mid.Pers. zêfân, zaspân "wrong, vile;" in classical Pers. dictionaries zif "churlishness; sin."

false color
  رنگ ِ زیف   
rang-e zif

Fr.: fausse couleur   

In imaging technique, assigning color to black and white images to differentiate features or convey information. → true color.

false; → color.

false dawn
  بامداد ِ زیف، ~ دروغین   
bâmdâd-e zif, ~ doruqin

Fr.: aube trompeuse   

An unusually early glow of the horizon near the rising sun during certain times of the year. This early glow does not originate directly from the Sun, but is rather caused by → zodiacal light. It may be mistaken for a sunrise.

false; → dawn.

false nucleus
  هسته‌ی ِ زیف   
haste-ye zif

Fr.: faux noyau   

An especially concentrated region in the → coma of some → comets, representing the dense cloud of inner coma rather than the much smaller true nucleus. Also called apparent nucleus and → pseudo-nucleus.

false; → nucleus.

false vacuum
  خلاء ِ زیف   
xala'-e zif

Fr.: faux vide   

A peculiar, hypothetical state of matter which is predicted to exist by current theories of → elementary particles, including the → grand unified theories. Unlike the ordinary vacuum, a false vacuum has a large → energy density and a large → negative pressure. A false vacuum is the driving force behind the rapid expansion in the → inflationary model of the → Universe.

false; → vacuum.

falsifiability
  زیفیدنیگی، زیفش‌پذیری   
zifidanigi, zifešpaziri

Fr.: falsifiabilité   

Philosophy of science: The concept according to which a proposition or theory cannot be scientific if it does not admit consideration of the possibility of its being false. According to Karl Popper (1902-1994), falsifiability is the crucial feature of scientific hypotheses. Any theory not falsifiable is said to be unscientific.

falsifiable; → -ity.

falsifiable
  زیفیدنی، زیفش‌پذیر   
zifidani, zifešpazir

Fr.: falsifiable   

The quality of something that can be falsified. → falsifiability.

falsify; → -able.

falsify
  زیفیدن   
zifidan

Fr.: falsifier   

1) To show or prove that a theory is incorrect or false.
2) To alter something in order to deceive.

Verb from → false.

falsity
  زیفی   
zifi

Fr.:   

The quality or condition of being → false. Opposite of → truth.

false; → -ity.

family
  خانواده   
xânevâdé (#)

Fr.: famille   

A group of entities with similar properties and common origin. → family of curves, → family of distributions, → family of sets, → comet family.

From L. familia "household, the slaves of a household," from famulus "servant," of unknown origin.

Xânevâdé "family," from xâné "house, home, houshold" + vâdé "root, foundation, origin." Xâné, from Mid.Pers. xânak, xân, xôn; cf. L. cunae "cradle;" Gk. kome "village;" Pers. Aftari dialect kiye "house, home;" PIE base *kei- "bed; to lie, to settle; beloved" (other cognates: P.Gmc. *khaim-; O.E. ham "dwelling, house, village;" E. home; Ger. Heim; L. civis "townsman;" Fr. cité; E. city; Skt. śiva- "auspicious, dear").

family of curves
  خانواده‌ی ِ خمها   
xânevâde-ye xamhâ

Fr.: famille de courbes   

A set of similar curves which are distinguished by the values taken by one or more parameters in their general equation. For example, the general solution of a differential equation is represented by a family of curves.

family; → curve.

family of distributions
  خانواده‌ی ِ واباژش‌ها   
xânevâde-ye vâbâžešhâ

Fr.: famille de distributions   

A set of distributions which have the same general mathematical → formula.

family; → distribution.

family of sets
  خانواده‌ی ِ هنگردها   
xânevâde-ye hangardhâ

Fr.: famille de comètes   

A → collection of → subsets of a set.

family; → set.

fan
  بادزن   
bâdzan (#)

Fr.: évantail   

In 3D → magnetic reconnection models of solar plasma, a plane or curve surface composed of magnetic field lines emanating from the → magnetic null point (almost radially in the absence of electric currents and spirally if electric currents are present). See also → spine (Lau & Finn. 1990, ApJ 350, 672; Parnell et al. 1996, Physics of Plasmas 3, 759).

M.E., from O.E. fann, from L. vannus "a basket or shovel for winnowing grain," related to ventus, → wind.

Bâdzan "fan, ventilator," from bâd, → wind + zan from zadan "to strike, beat; to play an instrument; to do" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR-I)
  رده‌ی ِ فاناروف-رایلی I   
rade-ye Fanarof-Riley I

Fr.: Fanaroff-Riley de type I   

In the → Fanaroff-Riley classification, sources with RFR < 0.5. Fanaroff and Riley (1974) found that nearly all sources with luminosity L(178MHz) ≤ 2 × 1025h100-2 W Hz-1 sr-1 were of class I. FR-I → radio jets are thought to be → subsonic, possibly due to mass entrainment, which makes them amenable to distortions in the interaction with the ambient medium.

Fanaroff-Riley classification; → class.

Fanaroff-Riley Class II (FR-II)
  رده‌ی ِ فاناروف-رایلی II   
radeh-ye Fanarof-Riley II

Fr.: Fanaroff-Riley de type II   

In the → Fanaroff-Riley classification, → radio sources with hotspots in their lobes at distances from the center which are such that RFR > 0.5. The → radio jets in FR-II sources are expected to be highly → supersonic, allowing them to travel large distances.

Fanaroff-Riley classification; → class.

Fanaroff-Riley classification
  رده‌بندی ِ فاناروف-رایلی   
radebandi-ye Fanaroff-Riley

Fr.: classification Fanaroff-Riley   

A classification scheme for distinguishing a → radio galaxy from an → active galaxy based on their → radio frequency  and → luminosity and their kpc-scale appearance. Analyzing a sample of 57 radio galaxies from the → 3CR catalogue, which were clearly resolved at 1.4 GHz or 5 GHz, Fanaroff & Riley (1974) discovered that the relative positions of regions of high and low → surface brightness in the → lobes of extragalactic → radio sources are correlated with their radio luminosity. They divided the sample into two classes using the ratio RFR of the distance between the regions of highest surface brightness on opposite sides of the central galaxy or quasar, to the total extent of the source up to the lowest brightness contour in the map. → Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR-I) , → Fanaroff-Riley Class II (FR-II). The boundary between the two classes is not very sharp, and there is some overlap in the luminosities of sources classified as FR-I or FR-II on the basis of their structures. The physical cause of the FR-I/II dichotomy probably lies in the type of flow in the → radio jets.

Bernard L. Fanaroff and Julia M. Riley, 1974, MNRAS 167, 31P; → classification.

far
  دور   
dur (#)

Fr.: loin, lointain   

Being at a great distance; remote in time or place.

O.E. feorr "to a great distance, long ago," from P.Gmc. *ferro (cf. Du. ver, Ger. fern), from PIE *per- "through, across, beyond" (cf. O.Pers. para "on the other side (of);" Av. parə "beyond, more than, superior," parô "except," pərətu- "crossing, bridge;" Mod.Pers. pol "bridge;" Skt. parás "far, further, beyond," Gk. pera "across, beyond," L. per "through").

Dur, from Mid.Pers. dūr "far, distant, remote;" O.Pers. dūra- "far (in time or space)," dūraiy "afar, far away, far and wide;" Av. dūra-, dūirē "far," from dav- "to move away;" cf. Skt. dūrá- "far; distance (in space and time);" PIE base *deu- "to move forward, pass;" cf. Gk. den "for a long time," deros "lasting long."

far infrared
  فروسرخ ِ دور   
forusorx-e dur (#)

Fr.: infrarouge lointain   

Infrared radiation in the wavelength range (25-40) to (200-350) microns emitted by cold molecular/dust clouds.

far; → infrared.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>