An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
time delay
  درنگ   
derang (#)

Fr.: retard   

1) The amount of time required for a → signal to travel from one point to another in an → electric circuit.
2) → gravitational lensing time delay.

time; → delay.

time delay distance
  اپست ِ درنگ ِ زمانی   
apest-e derang-e zamâni

Fr.:   

A distance-like quantity derived from → gravitational lensing time delay. It is given by a combination of three angular diameter distances in a strong lens system: DΔt = (1 + zL)[DA(EL)DA(ES) / DA(LS)], where zL is the → redshift of the → gravitational lens, while DA(EL), DA(ES), and DA(LS) are the angular diameter distances from the Earth to the lens, from the Earth to the source, and from the lens to the source, respectively. As each of the distance is proportional to the inverse of H0, DΔt is proportional to 1/H0.

time; → delay; → distance.

time dilation
  فراخش ِ زمان   
farâeš-e zamân

Fr.: dilatation du temps   

A phenomenon related to special and general relativity.
1) In → special relativity, the apparent shortening of time that occurs at speeds approaching that of light. A clock moving relative to a stationary observer will appear to slow down by a factor √(1- v2/c2), where v is the velocity and c the speed of light. → twins paradox.
2) In → general relativity, a clock in a stronger gravitational field runs more slowly. The dilation factor is given by: √(1- 2GM/rc2), where G is the gravitational constant, M the mass of the object creating the gravitational field, r a radial coordinate of the observer, which is analogous to the classical distance from the center of the object, and c the speed of light.

time; dilation, verbal noun of dilate, from M.E. dilaten, from O.Fr. dilater, from L. dilatare "make wider, enlarge," from → dis- "apart" + latus "wide."

Farâxeš, → dilation; zamân, → time.

time of periapsis passage
  زمان ِ گذر از پیراهباک   
zamân-e gozar az pirâhabâk

Fr.: temps de passage au périapse   

One of the → orbital elements, the time when the → secondary body reaches → periapsis.

time; → periapsis; → passage.

time resolution
  واگشود ِ زمانی   
vâgošud-e zamâni

Fr.: résolution temporelle   

Same → temporal resolution.

time; → resolution.

time reversal
  وارونش ِ زمان   
vâruneš-e zamân

Fr.: renversement du temps   

A transformation operating on time in the equations of motion of a dynamical system in which t is replaced by -t.

time; → reversal.

time scale
  مرپل ِ زمان   
marpel-e zamân

Fr.: échelle de temps   

A measure of duration of a specific process, such as → crossing time, → dynamical time scale, → evolutionary time scale, → Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale, → nuclear time scale, → photon escape time, → relaxation time, → star formation time scale.

time; → scale.

time series
  سری ِ زمانی   
seri-ye zamâni

Fr.: série temporelle   

A → sequence of values of a → variable in successive time order, usually at fixed intervals of time.

time; → series.

time zone
  زنار ِ زمان، زمان-زنار   
zonâr-e zamân, zamân-zonâr

Fr.: fuseau horaire   

Any of the 24 zones on the Earth surface delimited by → meridians at approximately 15° intervals. In each time zone a common standard time is used, and the time is one hour earlier than the zone immediately to the east.

time; → zone.

time's arrow
  پیکان ِ زمان   
peykân-e zamân

Fr.: flèche du temps   

The sequence of all natural processes in which the → entropy increases. In other words, the fact that these processes all move in one direction in time and are → irreversible. The past is distinctly different from the future; things always grow older, never younger.

time; arrow, M.E. arewe, arwe, from O.E. arwan, earh "arrow," from P.Gmc. *arkhwo (cf. Goth. arhwanza), from PIE base *arku- "bow and/or arrow," source of Latin arcus, → arc.

Peykân "arrow," → Sagitta; zamân, → time.

timelike
  زمانسان   
zamânsân

Fr.: genre temps   

Of, pertaining to, or describing an → event belonging to the interior of the → light cone.

time; → like.

timelike interval
  اندروار ِ زمانسان   
andarvâr-e zamânsân

Fr.: intervalle genre temps   

The → space-time interval between two → events if it is real, i.e. ds2 > 0.

timelike; → interval.

timepiece
  زمان‌شمار   
zamân-šomâr (#)

Fr.: appareil horaire   

Any mechanical, electric, or electronic device, such as a clock or watch, designed to measure and display the passage of time.

time; → piece.

Zamân-šomâr, literally "time counter," from zamân, → time, + šomâr "counter," from šomârdan "to count," from Mid.Pers. ôšmârtan, ôšmurtan "to reckon, calculate, enumerate, account for," from Av. base (š)mar- "to have in mind, remember, recall," pati-šmar- "to recall; to long for," hišmar-, cf. Skt. smar- "to remember, become aware," smarati "he remembers," L. memor, memoria, Gk. mermera "care," merimna "anxious thought, sorrow," martyr "witness."

tin
  ارزیز، قلعی   
arziz (#), qal'y (#)

Fr.: étain   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Sn (L. stannum for → alloys containing → lead). → Atomic number 50; → atomic weight 118.69; → melting point 231.9681°C; → boiling point 2,270°C; → specific gravity 5.75 (gray), 7.3 (white). The element was known in prehistoric times.

M.E., O.E. tin; cf. M.Du., Du. tin, O.H.G. zin, Ger. Zinn, O.N. tin; related to Fr. étain?

Arziz "tin," from Mid.Pers. arziz "tin, lead," arus "white, bright;" Av. ərəzata- "silver," auruša- "white;" cf. Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver;" Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver," L. argentum "silver," arguere "to make clear," argmentum "argument;" PIE *arg- "to shine, be white, bright, clear."
Qal'y of unknown origin.

TiO band
  باند ِ TiO   
bând-e TiO

Fr.: bandes TiO   

Any of the several → absorption bands due to the molecule → titanium oxide that are prominent in the spectra of cool → K and → M stars.

titanium oxide; → band.

tip
  ۱) نوک   
1) nok (#)

Fr.: haut, pointe, bout   

1) The top, summit, or apex.
2) To tilt or cause to tilt; overturn, upset, or overthrow.

1) M.E. tip, from M.L.G. or M.Du. tip "utmost point, extremity" (cf. Ger. zipfel, a diminutive formation).
2) From, tip noun from tip (v.) "to overturn, upset," from M.E. typen "to upset, overturn."

1) Nok "tip," variant tok.

tip of the red giant branch method (TRGB)
  روش ِ نوک ِ شاخه‌ی غول‌های ِ سرخ   
raveš-e nok-e šâxe-ye qulhâ-ye sorx

Fr.: méthode du haut de la branche des géantes   

A technique for deriving extragalactic distances which uses the → luminosity of the brightest → red giant branch stars in old → stellar populations as a → standard candle. For old (> 2-3 Gyr), → metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -0.7) stellar populations, this luminosity is relatively well determined, and the → absolute magnitude of these stars in the I band is roughly constant (MI = -4.1 ± 0.1).

tip; → red giant; → branch; → method.

tip-tilt mirror
  آینه‌یِ کج-و-راست-گر   
âyene-ye kaj-o-râst-gar

Fr.: miroir inclinable   

A rapidly moving → mirror used in → adaptive optics to correct overall movements of the incoming → wavefront of light caused by → atmospheric turbulence. The simplest form of adaptive optics is tip-tilt correction, which corresponds to correction of the tilts of the wavefront in two dimensions. This is done by tipping and tilting the mirror rapidly in response to overall changes in position of a reference star. See also → deformable mirror.

From, tip noun from tip (v.) "to overturn, upset," from M.E. typen "to upset, overturn" + tilt noun from tilt (v.) "to cause to lean, incline, slope, or slant," → tilt; → mirror.

Âyené, → mirror; kaj "turned aside; crooked, bent" (cf. Skt. kubja- "hump-backed, crooked," Pali kujja- "bent," L. gibbus "hump, hunch," Lith. kupra "hump") + -o- "and" + râstright + -gar agent noun suffix → -or.

tired
  خسته   
xasté (#)

Fr.: fatigué   

Exhausted of strength and energy.

Past participle of tire "to weary; become weary," M.E. tyren, O.E. teorian, of unknown origin.

Xasté "tired; hurt, wounded;" Mid.Pers. xastan, xad- "to injure, wound;" Av. vīxaδ- "to crush;" Proto-Iranian *xad- "to wound, hurt."

tired light
  نور ِ خسته   
nur-e xasté

Fr.: fatigue de la lumière   

The hypothesis that photons from distant objects lose energy during their intergalactic journey to us, thereby increasing in wavelength and becoming redshifted. This would provide an alternative to the → Big Bang model in accounting for the → redshifts of distant galaxies. However, there is no evidence for any such tired-light effect. First discussed by F. Zwicky (1929, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 15, 773).

tired; → light.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>