An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
necessary and sufficient conditions
  بوتارهای ِ بایسته و بسنده   
butârhâ-ye bâyesté o basandé

Fr.: conditions nécessaire et suffisante   

If event A must occur for event B to occur, then it is said that A is → necessary for B. If event A may cause B but there could be some other cause as well, then it is said that A is sufficient to cause B. See also → if and only if (iff).

necessary; → and; → sufficient; → condition.

necessary truth
  راستینی ِ بایسته   
râstini-ye bâyesté

Fr.: vérité nécessaire   

Logic: A → proposition if its → denial is self-contradictory. Also called "logical truth" and "non-contingent truth."

necessary; → truth.

necessity
  بایستگی   
bâyestegi (#)

Fr.: nécessité   

1) The fact of being necessary or indispensable.
2) Something necessary or indispensable.

necessary; → -ity.

neck
  گردن   
gardan (#)

Fr.: cou   

The part of a person's or animal's → body that connecting the → head to the rest of the body.

M.E. nekke, from O.E. hnecca, cognate with Du. nek "the nape of the neck;" Ger. Nacken, O.Norse hnakki "the nape of the neck."

Gardan "neck;" related to geri, geribân "collar," gerivé "low hill," galu "throat;" Mid.Pers. gartan "neck," galôg, griv "throat;" Av. grīvā- "neck;" cf. Skt. gala- "throat, neck;" Gk. bora "food;" L. gula "throat" (Fr. gueule "(animal) mouth"), gluttire "to gulp down," vorare "to devour;" PIE base *gwer- "to swallow, devour." L. gula; cf. Mod.Pers. galu "throat."

needle
  سوزن   
suzan (#)

Fr.: aiguille   

A slender pointed piece of metal, usually steel. → magnetic needle.

M.E. nedle, O.E. naeðlæ, nedlæ (cf. O.S. nathla, O.N. nal, O.Fris. nedle, O.H.G. nadala, Ger. Nadel); PIE root *(s)ne- "to sew, to spin;" cf. Skt. snayati "wraps up;" Gk. nein "to spin;" L. nere "to spin."

Suzan, Mid.Pers. sôzan, sucan, related to sok "pointed stick for driving cattle;" Av. sūkā- "needle;" cf. Skt. sūcī- "sting;" L. cuneus "wedge;" PIE base kū- "sharp; spike."

negate
  ناییدن   
nâyidan (#)

Fr.: nier   

1) To deny the existence or truth of.
2) To cause to be ineffective or invalid.

From L. negatus p.p. of negare "to say 'no', deny," from Old L. nec "not," from PIE base *ne- "no, not."

Nâyidan infinitive from "no, not," variants na, ni, ma- (prohitive); from Mid.Pers. nê, ma "no, not;" O.Pers. naiy, nai "not;" Av. nôit, naē "not;" cf. Skt. "not;" cf. L. ne-, in-, un-; Gk. ni; Lith. ; O.C.S. ne "not;" PIE *ne-, as above.

negation
  نایش   
nâyeš (#)

Fr.: négation   

1) The act of denying; → denial.
2) The absence or → opposite of something that is actual, positive, or affirmative.
3) A → negative statement, idea, doctrine; a contradiction, refutation, or rebuttal.
4) Logic: If p is a → proposition, then the statement "not p," denoted ¬ p, is the negation or opposite of p. If p is "It is sunny," then ¬ p is "It is not sunny." If p is → true, then ¬ p is → false, and vice versa.

Verbal noun of → negate.

negative
  ناییدار   
nâyidâr (#)

Fr.: négatif   

1) General: Expressing, containing, or consisting of a negation, refusal, or denial.
2) Math.: Of or relating to a quantity less than zero. Of or relating to the sign (-).
3) Physics: Of or relating to an electric charge of the same sign as that of an electron.
4) Photography: Having dark for light and light for dark.
5) Opposite of → positive.
See also:
negative charge, → negative correlation, → negative crystal, → negative feedback, → negative lens, → negative number, → negative polarization, → negative pressure, → negative skewness.

From O.Fr. negatif (fem. negative), from L. negativus, "denying, inhibiting (legal actions); denied/refused; negative," from negare "to refuse, say 'no'" from Old L. nec "not", from Italic base *nek- "not," from PIE base *ne- "no, not."

Nâyidâr, from nâyidan, → negate, on the model of xaridâr, foruxtâr, xâstâr, virâstâr, etc.

negative charge
  بار ِ ناییدار   
bâr-e nâyidâr

Fr.: charge négative   

An electric charge that has the same sign as the electron.

negative; → charge.

negative correlation
  هم‌باز‌آنش ِ ناییدار   
hambâzâneš-e nâyidâr

Fr.: corrélation négative   

A correlation between two variables such that as one variable's values tend to increase, the other variable's values tend to decrease.

negative; → correlation.

negative crystal
  بلور ِ ناییدار   
bolur-e nâyidâr

Fr.: cristal négatif   

A uniaxial, birefringent crystal in which the velocity of the extraordinary ray surpasses that of the ordinary ray.

negative; → crystal.

negative feedback
  بازخورد ِ ناییدار   
bâzxord-e nâyidâr

Fr.: rétroaction negative   

A → feedback process in which the → output reacts on the → input so as to reduce the initial → effect.

negative; → feedback.

negative lens
  عدسی ِ ناییدار   
adasi-ye nâyidâr

Fr.: lentille divergente   

Same as → divergent lens.

negative; → lens.

negative number
  عدد ِ ناییدار   
adad-e nâyidâr

Fr.: nombre négatif   

A → real number that is less than zero. A negative number is indicated by the → minus sign.

negative; → number.

negative polarization
  قطبش ِ ناییدار   
qotbeš-e nâyidâr

Fr.: polarisation négative   

A type of polarization in which the direction of polarization becomes reversed.

negative; → polarization.

negative pressure
  فشار ِ ناییدار   
fešâr-e nâyidâr

Fr.: pression négative   

A kind of pressure that contrarily to ordinary pressure pushes inward. In contrast with the → Newtonian mechanics, in → general relativity there are situations in which pressure can be negative. Positive pressure gives rise to attractive gravity, whereas negative pressure creates → repulsive gravity.

negative; → pressure.

negative skewness
  کژالی ِ ناییدار   
kažâli-ye nâyidâr

Fr.: asymétrie négative   

Of a distribution function, a skewness in which the left tail (tail at small end of the distribution) is more pronounced that the right tail (tail at the large end of the distribution). → positive skewness.

negative; → skewness.

negatron
  نگاترون   
negâtron (#)

Fr.: négatron   

An obsolete term denoting a negatively charged electron, as opposed to a positron.

From → negative + → electron.

neighborhood
  همسایگی   
hamsâyegi (#)

Fr.: voisinage   

1) The area or region around or near some place or thing; vicinity. → solar neighborhood.
2) Math.: An → open set that contains a given point.

From neighbor, M.E., O.E. neahgebur, from neahnear + -hood suffix denoting "state or condition of being;" M.E. -hode, -hod; O.E. -had "condition, position," cognate with Ger. -heit, Du. -heid.

Hamsâyegi, noun from hamsâyé "neighbor," literally "under, sharing the same shade," from ham-, → syn-, + sâyé, → shadow.

Neogene
  نیءوزاد، نوزاد   
Neozâd, Nowzâd

Fr.: Néogène   

A period of → geologic time within the Cenozoic era, between 23 and 2.6 million years ago, which comprises the Miocene and Pliocene epochs.

From L. neo-, → new, + -gene, → gene.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>