An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Poisson distribution
  واباژش ِ پو‌آسون   
vâbâžeš-e Poisson

Fr.: distribution de Poisson   

A → probability function that characterizes → discrete  → random events occurring independently of one another within some definite time or space. It may be regarded as an approximation of the → binomial distribution when the number of events becomes large and the probability of success becomes small. The Poisson distribution is expressed by: f(x) = (λxe)/x!, where λ is the mean number of successes in the interval, e is the base of the → natural logarithm, and x is the number of successes we are interested in.

Named after Siméon Denis Poisson (1781-1840), French mathematician, who developed the application of Fourier series to physical problems and made major contributions to the theory of probability and to the calculus of variations; → distribution.

Poisson's equation
  هموگش ِ پو‌آسون   
hamugeš-e Poisson

Fr.: équation de Poisson   

An equation (∇2φ = 4πGρ) which relates the gravitational (or electromagnetic) potential to the mass density (or charge density).

Poisson distribution; → equation.

polar
  ۱) قطبی؛ ۲) پلار   
1) qotbi; 2) polâr

Fr.: 1) polaire; 2) polar   

1) Of or pertaining to the pole of any sphere, a magnet, an electric cell, etc.
2) A subclass of → cataclysmic variables, the prototype being AM Herculis. Polars are short-period systems in which a → late-type → main sequence star transfers mass to a highly magnetized → white dwarf. The strong magnetic field (10-70 million → gauss) prevents the formation of an → accretion disk, locks both stars in synchronous rotation and guides the accreting matter to accretion spots which are the source of intense X-ray radiation (material impacts on to the white dwarf where it is radiated away).

1) Adj. of → pole.
2) From polar(ization) + (st)ar, because of their → circularly polarized light.

polar alignment
  آخطش ِ قطبی   
âxateš-e qotbi

Fr.: alignement polaire   

The process or the state of making a → telescope's → polar axis → parallel to the → Earth's → rotation axis, that is with the → true North or → South  → celestial pole. When this is accomplished, the sky's motion can be cancelled out simply by turning the axis (either by hand or with a motor → drive) at the same rate as the rotation of the Earth, but in the opposite direction.

polar; → alignment.

polar axis
  آسه‌ی ِ قطبی   
âse-ye qotbi (#)

Fr.: axe polaire   

The axis of an → equatorial mounting that is parallel to the Earth's axis, and consequently points to the celestial pole.

polar; → axis.

polar bond
  بند ِ قطبی   
band-e qotbi

Fr.: lien polaire   

A chemical bond where the electrons are shared unequally between atoms. The atom that is more electronegative will pull the electrons closer to itself.

polar; → bond.

polar cap
  کلاهک ِ قطبی   
kolâhak-e qotbi

Fr.: calotte polaire   

1) Either of the regions around the poles of the Earth that are permanently covered with ice.
2) Either of the two regions around the poles of the planet Mars, consisting of frozen carbon dioxide and water ice.
3) An area of a → pulsar's surface from where open magnetic field lines emanate.

polar; → cap.

polar circle
  پرهون ِ قطبی، دایره‌ی ِ ~   
parhun-e qotbi, dâyere-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: cercle polaire   

An imaginary parallel circle on the celestial sphere or on the Earth at a distance of 23°.5 from either poles.

polar; → circle.

polar coordinates
  هم‌آراهای ِ قطبی   
hamârâhâ-ye qotbi (#)

Fr.: coordonnées polaires   

A coordinate system in which the position of any point (M) in a plane is specified by two coordinates: 1) ρ, which expresses the distance from a fixed point (the pole, denoted O), and 2) the number φ, which is the angle formed by the line segment OM and a fixed reference line passing through the pole.

polar; → coordinate.

polar cusp
  تیزه‌ی ِ قطبی   
tize-ye qotbi

Fr.: cuspide polaire   

An area in the Earth's → magnetosphere, where the → magnetosheath plasma has direct access to the → ionosphere.

polar; → cusp.

polar day
  روز ِ قطبی   
ruz-e qotbi (#)

Fr.: jour polaire   

In polar regions, the portion of the year when the Sun is continuously in the sky. Its length changes from twenty hours at the Arctic/Antarctic Circle (latitude 66°33' N or S) to 186 days at the North/South Pole.

polar; → day.

polar distance
  دورای ِ قطبی   
durâ-ye qotbi

Fr.: distance polaire   

The angular distance of an object from a celestial pole. It is equal to 90° minus the object's declination.

polar; → distance.

polar equation
  هموگش ِ قطبی   
hamugeš-e qotbi

Fr.: équation polaire   

An equation for a curve written in terms of the → polar coordinates.

polar; → equation.

polar faculae
  پریسک‌های ِ قطبی   
periskhâ-ye qotbi

Fr.: facules polaires   

Solar faculae occurring in regions of high heliographic latitudes. They are smaller than the main-zone faculae; their shape is point-like or oval. Their lifetimes range from a few minutes to some hours, but the decisive difference from the main-zone faculae lies in their activity cycle. When spots and faculae of the main zone are at minimum, the polar faculae have their maximum activity, and vice versa.

polar; → facula.

polar molecule
  مولکول ِ قطبی   
molekul-e qotbi

Fr.: molécule polaire   

A molecule in which the centers of positive and negative charge distribution do not converge and therefore has a mostly positive charge on one side and a mostly negative charge on the other. Different atoms around a central atom will always be polar molecules. Some polar molecules are H2O, HF, COS, and CH3Cl. Polar molecules are characterized by a → dipole moment.

polar; → molecule.

polar motion
  جنبش ِ قطبی   
jonbeš-e qotbi

Fr.: mouvement du pôle   

The irregularly varying motion of the Earth's pole of rotation with respect to the Earth's crust.

polar; → motion.

polar night
  شب ِ قطبی   
šab-e qotbi

Fr.: nuit polaire   

In polar regions, the portion of the year when the Sun does not rise above the horizon. Its length changes from twenty hours at the Arctic/Antarctic Circle (latitude 66°33' N or S) to 179 days at the North/South Pole.

polar; → day.

polar orbit
  مدار ِ قطبی   
madâr-e qotbi (#)

Fr.: orbite polaire   

A spacecraft orbit that passes over, or close to, the geographic poles of the Earth or some other solar system object.

polar; → orbit.

polar orbiting satellite
  ماهواره با مدار ِ قطبی   
mâhvâré bâ madâr-e qotbi

Fr.: satellite en orbite polaire   

A satellite that revolves around the Earth in an almost north-south orbit, passing close to both poles. The orbits are sun synchronous, allowing the satellite to cross the equator at the same local time each day. These satellites orbit at a height of 830-880 km and take about 100 minutes to complete a turn around the Earth.

polar; → orbit; → satellite.

polar plume
  پرک ِ قطبی   
parrak-e qotbi

Fr.: plume polaire   

A coronal feature of the Sun, which appears as long, thin streamers that project outward from the Sun's north and south poles

polar; → plume.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>