An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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current
  جریان   
jarayân (#)

Fr.: courant   

Any steady movement of material in space. In particular, any movement of electric charge. → stream; → flow; → flux.

From O.Fr. corant "running," pr.p. of courre "to run," from L. currere "to run," from PIE *kers- "to run" (cf. Gk. -khouros "running," Lith. karsiu "go quickly," O.N. horskr "swift," Welsh carrog "torrent").

Jarayân from Ar.

current cosmological epoch
  زیمه‌ی ِ کیهانشناختی ِ کنونی   
zime-ye keyhânšenâxti-ye konuni

Fr.: époque cosmologique actuelle   

The → Universe at the → redshift z = 0.

current; → cosmological; → epoch.

current density
  چگالی ِ جریان   
cagâli-ye jarayân

Fr.: densité de courant   

The electric current per unit of cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of current flow. It is a vector quantity and represented by symbol J. Electric current density is usually expressed in amperes per square meter.

current; → density

cursor
  جابان   
jâbân

Fr.: curseur   

A movable, sometime blinking, indicator on a computer screen identifying the point that will be affected by input from the user (OxfordDictionaries.com).

From L. cursor "runner," also "errand-boy," from curs-, p.p. stem of currere "to run," → current.

Jâbân, literally "position/place keeper," or "position/place maker," from , → place, + -bân a suffix denoting "keeper, guard," sometimes forming agent nouns or indicating relation, → host.

curvaton
  کورواتون   
kurvaton

Fr.: curvaton   

A hypothetical → scalar field that is used to explain the → primordial curvature perturbation in the Universe. It is generally supposed that the primordial perturbation originates during → inflation, from the → quantum fluctuation of the inflation field. The curvaton model is an attempt to account for the primordial perturbation by a completely different origin, namely the quantum fluctuation during inflation of a light scalar field which is not the assumed slowly-rolling inflation. In this model, the curvaton field is an energetically sub-dominant component during inflation. As the energy density of the Universe drops after inflation, the fraction of this component becomes significant. At this time the curvaton perturbation is converted into an adiabatic curvature perturbation of the Universe. The amplitude of the final perturbation, which should match observations, depends on both how long the curvaton oscillates before it decays, and on the shape of the potential. The first curvaton model was proposed by D. H. Lyth & D.Wands and in 2002 (Physics Letters B524).

From curvat-, from → curvature, + → -on. Although not related, the term curvaton exists in Fr. meaning "small curve" with variants curvatone, courbaton, and corbatone (A. Jal, 1848, Glossaire nautique).

curvature
  خمیدگی   
xamidegi (#)

Fr.: courbure   

A measure of the amount by which a curve, a surface, or any other manifold deviates from a straight line, a plane, or a hyperplane. In particular, The reciprocal of the radius of the circle which most nearly approximates a curve at a given point.
See also:
curvature constant, → curvature of space-time, → field curvature, → primordial curvature perturbation.

From L. curvatura, from curvatus, p.p. of curvare "to bend," from curvus "curved," → curve.

Xamidegi, from xamidé "curved," from xamidag "curved" + noun suffix -i.

curvature constant
  پارامون ِ خمیدگی   
pârâmun-e xamidegi

Fr.: paramètre de courbure   

A parameter occurring in the → Friedmann equations of → general relativity describing the geometry of → space-time. A spatially → open Universe is defined by k = -1, a → closed Universe by k = + 1 and a → flat Universe by k = 0. See also the → Robertson-Walker metric. See also → curvature of space-time.

curvature; → parameter.

curvature of space-time
  خمیدگی ِ فضا-زمان   
xamidegi-ye fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: courbure de l'espace-temps   

According to → general relativity, → space-time is curved by the presence of → matter. The curvature is described in terms of → Riemann's geometry. In → cosmological models three types of curvature are considered: positive (spherical, → closed Universe), zero (Euclidean, → flat Universe), and negative (hyperbolic, → open Universe). See also → curvature constant.

curvature; → space-time.

curve
  خم   
xam (#)

Fr.: courbe   

A line that deviates from straightness in a smooth, continuous fashion. A line representing a variable on a graph.

From L. curvus "crooked, curved, bent;" cf. Av. skarəna- "round," Gk. kirkos, krikos "a ring;" PIE base *sker- "to turn, bend."

Xam, variant kamân "arc," Mid.Pers. kamân, probably from PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook," cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent."

curve fitting
  سز ِ خم، سزکرد ِ ~   
saz-e xam, sazkard-e ~

Fr.: ajustement de courbe   

Construction of mathematical functions whose graphs are curves that "best" approximate a given collection of data points.

curve; → fitting.

curve of growth
  خم ِ رویش   
xam-e ruyeš

Fr.: courbe de croissance   

A plot showing how the → equivalent width of an → absorption line, or the radiance of an → emission line, increases as a → function of the → number of → atoms that produce the line.

curve; → growth.

curved
  خمیده   
xamidé (#)

Fr.: courbé   

Not straight.

Adj. from → curve.

curvilinear
  خم‌خط   
xam-xatt

Fr.: curviligne   

Consisting of, represented by, or bound by curved lines. → rectilinear.

From → curve + → linear.

cusp
  تیزه   
tizé (#)

Fr.: cuspide   

1) General: Pointed end. A point of transition. → polar cusp.
2) Either point of a → crescent moon.
3) A steep power-law representing the number density of stars in the central region of a galaxy. Cusps are characteristic of low-mass ellipticals. They are thought to result from the gravitational attraction of a central → supermassive black hole.
4) A peaked concentration of dark matter in the center of galaxies, as predicted by the → cold dark matter (CDM) model of galaxy formation. See also → cusp problem.
5) Math: A tooth-like meeting of two branches of a curve, with sudden change of direction.

L. cuspis "point, spear, pointed end."

Tizé, noun from tiz "sharp, pointed," from Mid.Pers. tēz, tēž, tigr "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," Av. taēža-, tighra- "pointed," Skt. taējas- "the sharp edge (of a knife), piercing (flame)", from tij- "to be sharp, to pierce," Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. instigare "to goad," P.Gmc. *stik- "to pierce, prick, be sharp," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to prick," O.E. stician "to pierce, stab," E. stick "to pierce;" PIE *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed".

cusp problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ تیزه   
parâse-ye tizé

Fr.: problème des cuspides   

A problem encountered by the → cold dark matter (CDM) model of galaxy formation. The numerical simulations with CDM predict a large concentration of dark matter in the center of galaxies, with a peaked density distribution, in contrast to the real, observed galaxies. See also: → angular momentum catastrophe; → missing dwarfs.

cusp; → problem.

cut
  بریدن   
boridan (#)

Fr.: couper   

To penetrate or divide something, as with a sharp-edged instrument.

M.E. cutten, kytten, kitten; O.E. *cyttan, cognate with O.Swed. kotta "to cut;" O.N. kuti "little knife," or from O.Fr. couteau "knife."

Boridan "to cut off;" Mid.Pers. brin-, britan, brinitan "to cut off," brin "cut, delimitation, determined;" Av. (pairi-) brī- "to shave, shear;" cf. Skt. bhrī- "to hurt, injure," bhrinanti "they hurt."

cutoff
  بره   
boré

Fr.: coupure   

1) A designated limit beyond which the passage of something must be stopped.
2) A device that cuts off a transmission of photons.

cut; → off.

Boré, from bor- present stem of boridan "to → cut" + noun suffix .

cutoff filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ بره   
pâlâye-ye boré

Fr.: filtre à coupure   

Filter rejecting all light with wavelengths on one side of the cutoff wavelength.

cutoff; → filter.

cutoff voltage
  ولتاژ ِ بره   
voltâž-e boré

Fr.: tension de coupure   

The electrode voltage which reduces the value of a dependent variable, e.g. anode current, to a specified low value.

cutoff; → voltage.

cutoff wavelength
  موج-طول ِ بره   
mowj-tul-e boré

Fr.: longueur d'onde de coupure   

Wavelength at which the transmittance of a filter, or the detectivity of a detector, has fallen to one-half its peak value.

cutoff; → wavelength.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>