An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
rotor
  چرخا   
carxâ (#)

Fr.: rotor   

A rotating part of an electrical apparatus, e.g. the armature of a generator, or of a mechanical device.
A system of several flat blades attached to a hub, which rotates either horizontally to give lift and thrust to a helicopter, or vertically to help control it.
Meteo.: The circulation of flow about a horizontal or nearly horizontal axis.

Short for rotator, → rotate, + → -or.

Carxâ agent noun of carxidan, → rotate.

row
  رج   
raj (#)

Fr.: ligne, rangée   

CCD detector: Series of pixels arranged along a line. → column

O.E. ræw "a row, line;" cf. Du. rij "row;" O.H.G. rihan "to thread," riga "line;" Ger. Reihe "row, line, series."

Raj "line, row," variants raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), ris, risé, radé, rasté, râsté, related to râst "right, true; just, upright, straight;" Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" Soghdian rəšt "right;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule."

Roxburgh criterion
  سنجیدار ِ راکسبرگ   
sanjidâr-e Roxburgh

Fr.: critère de Roxburgh   

An integral constraint used to quantify the uncertainty on the extent of → convective overshooting and its effect on models of stars.

Roxburgh, I. 1989, A&A, 211, 361; → criterion.

RR Lyrae star
  ستاره‌ی ِ RR چنگ   
setâre-ye RR Cang

Fr.: étoile RR Lyrae   

A member of a large class of → pulsating stars of type A2-F6 with periods less than 1 day. They are similar to → Cepheids, except that their periods are much shorter and are less luminous. RR Lyrae stars belong to → Population II and are often found in → globular clusters (hence one of their older names cluster variables) or elsewhere in the → galactic halo. They are used as distance indicators (→ standard candle) out to more than 200 kpc.

Lyra; → star.

rubidium
  روبیدیوم   
rubidiom (#)

Fr.: rubidium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Rb. Atomic number 37; atomic weight 85.4678; melting point 38.89°C; boiling point 686°C; specific gravity 1.53 at 20°C. It was discovered in the mineral lepidolite by the German chemist Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and the German physicist Gustav-Robert Kirchoff in 1861. Bunsen isolated rubidium in 1863.

From L. rubidus "deep red," because of the two "deep red lines" in its spectra.

ruby
  یاقوت، یاکند   
yâqut (#), yâkand (#)

Fr.: rubis   

Red form of corundum, Al2O3, which owes its color to traces of chromium. Used in laser as a gem stone.

M.E. rubi, from O.Fr. rubi, from M.L. rubinus lapis "red stone," from L. rubeus "red," related to ruberred.

Yâqut, yâkand related to Gk. hyakinthos "hyacinth," probably ult. from a non-I.E. Mediterranean language.

Rudolphine Tables
  زیج ِ رودولفی   
zij-e Rudolfi

Fr.: Tables rudolphines   

A set of astronomical tables created in 1627 by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) based on observations by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). These tables allowed Kepler to derive the three laws of planetary motions bearing his name (→ Kelpler's laws). These are the first tables in which → atmospheric refraction has been taken into account. They overruled the → Prutenic Tables.

From the L. title Tabulae Rudolphinae, in memory of Rudolf II (1552-1612), king of Hungary and Bohemia, and Holy Roman Emperor; → table.

Ruffini-Horner method
  روش ِ روفینی-هورنر   
raveš-e Ruffini-Horner

Fr.: méthode de Ruffini-Horner   

A method for finding the value of a → polynomial given by a real number and deriving its → roots. It consists essentially of factoring the polynomial in a nested form. Also known as → nested multiplication.

Named after Paolo Ruffini (1765-1822) and William Horner (1786-1837), who independently elaborated the method; → method.

Ruhmkorff coil
  پیچه‌ی ِ روهمکورف   
pice-ye Ruhmkorff

Fr.: bobine de Ruhmkorff   

An → induction coil which was a forerunner of today's automobile ignition coil. It consists of two coils wound on a single → iron core, and uses an → alternating current produced by a break-wheel to induce a high-voltage current in the secondary coil.

After Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff (1803-1877), a German-born instrument maker, who settled in Paris in 1819 for the rest of his life; → coil.

rule
  رزن   
razan

Fr.: règle   

1) A law or regulation that governs behaviors, actions, or operations. → Arnett's rule, → commutation rule, → Fleming's rule, → Hund's rule, → left-hand rule, → Maxwell's rule, → right-hand rule, → rigorous selection rule, → selection rule, and → Trouton's rule.
2) A strip of rigid material marked off in units used especially for measuring length.
3) In some → planispheric astrolabes, a bar which rotates across the front of the astrolabe and is used to locate positions on the → rete, and to relate them to the scale of hours marked on the → limb. Also called the → index.

M.E. riule, reule, from O.Fr. riule, from L. regula "straight stick, bar, ruler," related to regere "to rule, straighten, guide;" cognate with Pers. râst "right, straight," razan "rule," as below.

Razan from Av. razan "rule, order," from rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," rasman- "the lines or files of the army;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" Soghdian rəšt "right," rây-, râyênitan "to arrange;" Mod.Pers. râst "right, true; just, upright, straight;" raj "line, row," variants raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule."

rule of decision
  رزن ِ واسون   
razan-e vâsun

Fr.: régle de décision   

Same as → significance testing and → test of significance.

rule; → decision.

rule of three
  رزن ِ سه   
razan-e sé

Fr.: règle de trois   

Te method of finding the fourth term in a proportion when three terms are given.

rule; → three.

ruled grating
  توری ِ شیاردار   
turi-ye šiyârdâr

Fr.: réseau à traits   

A → diffraction grating with a series of grooves that have been ruled on a reflective surface with a diamond tool mounted on a ruling machine. Ruled gratings may have triangular or trapezoidal groove profiles, whereas → holographic gratings usually have sinusoidal groove profiles.

Ruled, → rule; → grating.

Turi, → grating; šiyârdâr "having grooves," from šiyâr, → groove, + -dâr "having, possessor," → property.

ruled surface
  رویه‌ی ِ خط‌ساخته   
ruye-ye xatt sâxté

Fr.: surface réglée   

A surface, such as a cylinder or cone, that can be generated by moving a straight line.

Ruled, p.p. of rule; → surface.

Ruyé, → surface; xatt sâxté "built, formed by a line," from xattline; sâxté, p.p. of sâxtan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").

rump
  کپل، سرین   
kapal (#), sorin (#)

Fr.: croupe   

The hind part of the body of an animal, as the hindquarters of a quadruped or sacral region of a bird (Dictionary.com).

M.E. rumpe, from Scandinavian; compare Dan., Norw. Swed. rumpe rumpa "tail;" cognate with Ger. Rumpf "body, trunk."

Kapal, maybe from Ar. kafal.
Sorin, → buttock.

run
  داو   
dâv

Fr.: période   

An interval or period during which something, as a machine, operates or continues operating. → observing run.

Run, noun from verb, from M.E. ronnen, alteration of rinnen, (from O.E. rinnan and O.N. rinna) and of rennen, from O.N. renna; akin to O.H.G. rinnan; Ger. rinnen "to flow, run;" Skt. rinati "he causes to flow," and probably to L. rivus "stream;" PIE base *rei- "to flow."

Dâv "a move, a turn (at play)," dâv zadan (kardan) "to make a move (at game)," variant dow (e.g. dow bé dast-e kasi oftâdan), maybe related to dow "run," from davidan, dav- "to run;" Mid.Pers. dawidan, daw- "to run;" cf. Skt. dhāv- "to walk, hurry, flow," dhāvati "flows, runs;" Gk. thoos "fast, quick;" O.E. deaw; E. dew; PIE base *dheu- "to flow."

runaway star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گریزان   
setâre-ye gorizân

Fr.: étoile en fuite   

A massive, young, and hot star that is moving quickly through space. Runaways are probably propelled through space from a binary star when its companion has exploded as a supernova, or ejected from a stellar cluster by the dynamical interactions in the system.

run; away, from O.E. aweg, earlier on weg "on from this (that) place;" → star.

Setâré, → star; gorizân present participle of goriz-, gorixtan "to escape; to flee, run away;" Mid.Pers. virextan; Proto-Iranian *vi-raik, from vi- "apart, asunder" + *raik; Av. raek- "to leave, set free, let off;" Mid./Mod.Pers. reg/rig (in mordé-rig "inheritance"); Skt. ric- "to leave," rinakti "gives up, evacuates;" Gk. leipein "to leave;" L. linquere "to leave;" from PIE *linkw-, from *leikw- "to leave behind" (cf. Goth. leihvan; O.E. lænan "to lend;" O.H.G. lihan "to borrow;" O.N. lan "loan").

runoff
  رواناب   
ravânâb (#)

Fr.: ruissellement   

The water or other liquids that drains or flows from the land into streams and rivers, eventually into seas.

From → run + → off.

Ravânâb, literally "flowing water," from ravân "flowing, running," pr.p. of raftan "to go, walk; to flow" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack" + âb, → water.

rupture
  پارگی، گسست   
pâregi (#) , gosast (#)

Fr.: rupture   

Breaking apart or bursting. → plastic, → plasticity.

From L. ruptura "the breaking (of an arm or leg), fracture," from p.p. of rumpere "to break."

Pâregi "rupture," from pâré, → partial; gosast, → Big Rip.

rural
  روستایی   
rustâyi (#)

Fr.: rural   

In, relating to, or characteristic of the → countryside.

M.E., from O.Fr. rural, from L ruralis "of the countryside," from rur-,rus "open land, country;" cf. O.E. rum "space" (extent or time); O.H.G., Gothic rum, Ger. Raum "space," ultimately from PIE root *reue- "to open; space," source also of Av. ravah- "space," O.Irish roi, roe "plain field," O.C.S. ravinu "level," Russ. ravnina "a plain."

Rustâyi, adj. of rustâ, → countryside.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>