An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
gauge theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گز   
negare-ye gaz (#)

Fr.: théorie de jauge   

A field theory in which it is possible to perform a transformation without altering any measurable physical quantity.

gauge; → theory.

gauge transformation
  ترادیس ِ گز   
tarâdis-e gaz (#)

Fr.: transformation de jauge   

A change of the fields of a gauge theory that does not change the value of any measurable quantity.

gauge; → transformation.

gauging
  گزکرد   
gazkard

Fr.:   

A technique in which the thickness, density, or quantity of a material is determined by the amount of radiation it absorbs.

Gauging, from → gauge + → -ing, suffix of nouns formed from verbs, expressing the action of the verb or its result.

Gazkard, from gaz, → gauge, + kard past stem of kardan "to do, make," → gauge.

Gaunt factor
  کروند ِ گاؤنت   
karvand-e Gaunt

Fr.: facteur de Gaunt   

In the atomic theory of spectral line formation, a quantum mechanical correction factor applied to the absorption coefficient in the transition of an electron from a bound or free state to a free state.

Gaunt, after John Arthur Gaunt (1904-1944), English physicist born in China, who significantly contributed to the calculation of continuous absorption using quantum mechanics; → factor

gauss
  گاؤس   
gauss (#)

Fr.: gauss   

The c.s.g. unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction), equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter, or 10-4 tesla.

Named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855).

Gauss's law for electricity
  قانون ِ گاؤس در برق   
qânun-e Gauss dar barq

Fr.: loi de Gauss en électricité   

The total electric flux ψ out of an arbitrary closed surface in free space is equal to the net charge within the surface divided by the → permittivity. In differential form: ∇ . E = ρ/ε0, where ρ is the → charge density and ε0 the permittivity. The integral form of the law: ∫E . dS = Q0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations.

gauss; → law; → electricity.

Gauss's law for magnetism
  قانون ِ گاؤس در مغنات‌مندی   
qânun-e Gauss dar meqnâtmandi

Fr.: loi de Gauss en magnétisme   

The → magnetic flux through an arbitrary closed surface equals zero. Mathematically, in differential form: ∇ . B = 0 and in integral form: ΦB = ∫B.dS = 0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations. This law expresses the fact that there are no free magnetic poles (→ monopoles) in nature and that all the lines of force of a magnetic field are closed curves.

gauss; → law; → magnetism.

Gauss's lemma
  نهک ِ گاؤس   
nehak-e Gauss

Fr.: lemme de Gauss   

If a → polynomial with → integer coefficients can be → factorized into polynomials with → rational number coefficients, it can be factorized using only integers.

Gaussian; → lemma.

Gauss's theorem
  فربین ِ گاؤس   
farbin-e Gauss

Fr.: théorème de Gauss   

The total normal induction over any closed surface drawn in an electric field is equal to 4π times the total charge of electricity inside the closed surface. Gauss's theorem applies also to other vector fields such as magnetic, gravitational, and fluid velocity fields. The theorem can more generally be stated as: the total flux of a vector field through a closed surface is equal to the volume → integral of the vector taken over the enclosed volume. Also known as → divergence theorem, Ostrogradsky's theorem, and Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem.

gauss; → theorem.

Gaussian
  گاؤسی   
Gaussi (#)

Fr.: gaussien   

Of or relating to Carl Friedrich Gauss or his mathematical theories of magnetism, electricity, astronomy, or probability. → Gaussian distribution; → Gaussian profile.

gauss.

Gaussian distribution
  واباژش ِ گاؤسی   
vâbâžeš-e Gaussi (#)

Fr.: distribution gaussienne   

A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean.

Gaussian; → distribution.

Gaussian elimination
  اسانش ِ گاؤسی   
osâneš-e Gaussi

Fr.: élimination de Gauss   

A method of solving a matrix equation of the form A x = b, where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors. The process consists of two steps, first reducing the elements below the diagonal to 0 and second, back substituting to find the solutions.

Gaussian; → elimination.

Gaussian function
  کریای ِ گاؤس   
karyâ-ye Gauss

Fr.: fonction de Gauss   

The function e-x2, whose integral in the interval -∞ to +∞ gives the → square root of the → number pi: ∫e-x2dx = √π. It is the function that describes the → normal distribution.

Gaussian; → function.

Gaussian gravitational constant
  پایای ِ گرانشی ِ گاؤس   
pâyâ-ye gerâneši-ye Gauss

Fr.: constante gravitationnelle de Gauss   

The constant, denoted k, defining the astronomical system of units of length (→ astronomical unit), mass (→ solar mass), and time (→ day), by means of → Kepler's third law. The dimensions of k2 are those of Newton's constant of gravitation: L 3M -1T -2. Its value is: k = 0.01720209895.

Gaussian; → gravitational; → constant.

Gaussian integer
  درسته‌ی ِ گاؤس   
doroste-ye Gauss

Fr.: entier de Gauss   

A → complex number whose → real and → imaginary parts are both integers.

Gaussian; → integer.

Gaussian profile
  فراپال ِ گاؤسی   
farâpâl-e Gaussi

Fr.: profile gaussien   

The shape of a curve representing a normal distribution.

Gaussian; → profile.

Gaussianity
  گاؤسیگی   
Gaussigi

Fr.: gaussienité   

Math.: The condition of having → Gaussian distribution. The extent to which something is Gaussian.

Gaussian + → -ity.

Gay-Lussac's law
  قانون ِ گی-لوساک   
qânun-e Gay-Lussac (#)

Fr.: loi de Gay-Lussac   

1) Law of combining volumes. The volumes of gases used and produced in a chemical reaction, are in the ratio of small whole numbers when measured at constant temperature and pressure.
2) For a gas held at constant volume, there is a direct correlation between temperature and pressure: P1/T1 = P2/T2. Gay-Lussac's law, → Boyle-Mariotte law, and → Charles' law were later unified into the → ideal gas law.

Named after Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850), a French chemist and physicist; → law.

GCN: The Gamma-ray Coordinates Network
  توربست ِ هماراهای ِ پرتوهای ِ گاما   
turbast-e hamârâhâ-ye partowhâ-ye gâmâ

Fr.: Le réseau des coordonnées des rayons gamma   

A follow-up community network concerned with → gamma-ray burst (GRB)s. It deals with: 1) locations of GRBs and other → transients detected by spacecraft (most in real-time while the GRB is still bursting), and 2) reports of follow-up observations (the Circulars) made by ground-based and space-based optical, radio, X-ray, TeV, and other observers. The GCN Circulars allow the GRB follow-up community to make optimum use of its limited resources (labor and telescope time) by communicating what has already been done or will soon be done.

gamma ray; → coordinate; → network.

GD 165B
     
GD 165B

Fr.: GD 165B   

The prototype of the → L dwarf class. It has a spectral type of L4 V. This object was discovered by Becklin & Zuckerman (1988, Nature 336, 656) as the red companion to a → white dwarf (DA4) lying 104 → light-years away. Its true nature was however recognized several years later (Kirkpatrick et al. 1993, ApJ 406, 701). It has an → effective temperature of 1900 K and a luminosity about 10-4 times that of the Sun (→ solar luminosity).

GD, referring to Giclas Dwarf, a catalog of white dwarf stars compiled at the Lowell Observatory (Giclas et al. 1980, LowOB 8, 157).

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>