An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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Weizsacker formula
  دیسول ِ وایتسکر   
disul-e Weizsäcker

Fr.: formule de Weizsäcker   

A → semiempirical → equation which describes the → binding energy of the → atomic nucleus. It is essentially a nuclear mass formula that provides the total binding energy per → nucleon as the sum of five terms:
Eb = aVA - aSA2/3 - aCZ2/A1/3 - aA(N -Z)2/A + δ(A,Z),
where the terms in the right-hand side of this equation are called the volume term, surface term, Coulomb term, asymmetry term, and pairing term, respectively. A, Z, and N are the number of nucleons, → protons, and → neutrons, respectively (see, e.g., Alexi M. Frolov, 2013, arxiv.org/pdf/1212.6768). Also called Bethe-Weizacker formula and → semiempirical binding energy formula.

Named after Carl Friedrich von Weizäcker (1912-2007), German physicist, who derived the formula in 1935, Z. für Physik 96, 431; → formula.

well
  ۱) خوش، خوب؛ ۲) چاه   
1) xoš, xub; 2) câh

Fr.:   

1) In a good or satisfactory manner; thoroughly, carefully, or soundly.
2) A hole drilled or bored into the earth to obtain water, petroleum, natural gas, brine, or sulfur (Dictionary.com).

1) M.E., from O.E. wel(l) (cognates Du. wel, Ger. wohl).
2) M.E. well(e), O.E. wylle, wella, welle (cognates: O.Saxon wallan, O.Fris. walla, O.H.G. wallan, Ger. wallen "to bubble, boil").

1) Xoš "good, well, sweet, fair, lovely," probably related to hu- "good, well," → eu-. Xub, ultimately from Av. huuāpah- "doing good work," → operate.
2) Câh "a well," from Mid.Pers. câh "a well;" Av. cāt- "a well," from kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Mod.Pers. kandan "to dig;" cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs," kha- "cavity, hollow, cave, aperture."

well-formed formula (wff)
  دیسول ِ خوش‌دیسه (wff)   
disul-e xošdisé (wff)

Fr.: formule bien formée (FBF)   

A string of → symbols from the alphabet of the → formal language that conforms to the grammar of the formal language. → closed wff, → open wff.

Wff, pronounced whiff; → well; → form; → formula.

well-ordered set
  هنگرد ِ خوش‌رایه   
hangard-e xoš-râyé

Fr.: ensemble bien ordonné   

A set in which every → nonempty → subset has a minimum element.

well; → order; → set.

Werner band
  باند ِ ورنر   
bând-e Werner

Fr.: bande de Werner   

A sequence of → permitted transitions in the → ultraviolet from an → excited state (C) of the → molecular hydrogen (H2) to the electronic → ground state, with ΔE > 12.3 eV and λ ranging from 1160 Å to 1250 Å. When a hydrogen molecule absorbs such a photon, it undergoes a transition from the ground electronic state to the excited state (C). The following rapid → decay creates an → absorption band in that wavelength range. See also → Lyman band; → Lyman-Werner photon.

Named after the Danish physicist Sven Theodor Werner (1898-1984), who discovered the band (S. Werner, 1926, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 113, 107); → band.

west
  باختر   
bâxtar (#)

Fr.: ouest   

The direction 90° to the left or 270° to the right of → north.

M.E., O.E. "west" "in or toward the west;" cf. O.N. vestr, O.Fris., M.Du., Du. west, Ger. West; PIE base *wes- (Gk. hesperos, L. vesper "evening, west").

Bâxtar "west;" Mid.Pers. apâxtar "north;" Av. apāxtar "northern."

western
  باختری   
bâxtari (#)

Fr.: (de l') ouest, occidental   

Lying toward or situated in the west. → greatest western elongation.

Adjective from → west.

western elongation
  درازش ِ باختری   
derâzeš-e bâxtari

Fr.: élongation ouest   

The position of a planet when it is visible in the eastern sky before dawn.

western; → elongation.

wet
  خیس   
xis (#)

Fr.: mouillé   

Consisting of, containing, covered or soaked with water or some other liquid.

O.E. wæt "moist, liquid," related to O.Frisian wēt, O.N. vātr, O.E. wæter "water."

Xis, xês "wet, moist," related to pašang, pašangidan "sprinkle," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *haic- "to pour (out), moisten;" cf. Av. haēc- "to pour (out); to irrigate;" Khotanese häs- "to wet, besprinkle;" Sogd. šync "to pour" (Cheung 2007).

wet merger
  تشک ِ پر گاز   
tašk-e porgâz

Fr.: fusion avec gaz   

A merger between → gas-rich galaxies. Wet mergers may lead to enhanced star formation, trigger → active galactic nuclei, and transform a → disk galaxy into an → elliptical galaxy. The larger the → redshift, the wetter mergers should be.

wet; → merger.

Weyl's principle
  پروز ِ ویل   
parvaz-e Weyl

Fr.: principe de Weyl   

The → world lines of galaxies form in the 4D space-time a bundle of non-intersecting → geodesics orthogonal to a series of space-like hyperstructures (e.g. Narlikar 2002, An Introduction to Cosmology, 3rd Edition, Cambridge Univ. Press). Expressed differently: The world lines of galaxies, or "fundamental particles," form (on average) a space-time filling family of non-intersecting geodesics converging toward the past (Rugh & Zinkernagel, 2010, astro-ph/1006.5848). The statement is sometimes denoted postulate, assumption, or hypothesis. The importance of Weyl's principle is that it asserts that cosmic matter moves according to certain regularity requirements. See also → cosmological principle.

First introduced by the German mathematician Hermann Weyl (1885-1955) in 1923 in his Raum, Zeit, Materie; → principle.

Wezen
  وزن   
Vazn (#)

Fr.: Wezen   

The star δ Canis Majoris, magnitude 1.84. It is an F8 supergiant 1800 light-years away. Among bright stars, Wezen is one of the most distant and luminous. Its luminosity is 50,000 times that of the Sun. Other designations: Alwazn, Wesen, HR 2693, HD 54605.

From Ar. Al-wazn (الوزن) "weight."

Vazn, from Ar. Al-wazn, as above.

whale
  وال، نهنگ   
vâl, nahang (#)

Fr.: balleine   

1) Any of the larger ocean mammals, excluding the porpoises and dolphins, that breathe through a blowhole on the top of their head and have front flippers, no hind limbs, and a flat horizontal tail.
2) The constellation → Cetus.

M.E., O.E. hwæl, cf. O.S. hwal, O.N. hvalr, Swed. val, M.Du. wal, Du. walvis, O.H.G. wal, Ger. Wal, probably cognate with L. squalus and Pers. vâl, as below.

1) Mod.Pers. vâl, wâl, related to Mid.Pers. kar (mâhig) "whale (fish);" Av. kara- "a mythological fish;" also Mod.Pers. kuli "a kind of fish;" cf. L. squalus "a kind of large sea fish;" PIE (s)kwalo- "a large fish."
2) Pers. nahang originally "crocodile," from Mid.Pers. nihang "crocodile; hippopotamus," ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ni-θanj- "to drag down," since crocodiles drag down their preys underwater and drown them, from ni- "down, below," → ni- (PIE) , + θanj- "to draw, pull" (cf. Pers. farhang; sanjidan, etc.).

Wheatstone bridge
  پل ِ ویتستون   
pol-e Wheatstone

Fr.: pont de Wheatstone   

An device consisting of four → resistances in series, used to determine the value of an unknown electrical resistance when the other three resistances are known.

Named after Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), British physicist, who extensively used the circuit (1843) but was not its inventor. Such an arrangement of four resistances was first used by Samuel Hunter Christie (1784-1865) in 1833; → bridge.

wheel
  چرخ   
carx (#)

Fr.: roue   

1) A solid disk or a rigid circular ring arranged to turn around an axle passed through the center.
2) Anything like a wheel in shape or function.

M.E. whel(e), O.E. hweol, hweogol, from PIE *k(w)e-k(w)lo- "wheel, circle;" cf. Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel;" L.L. cyclus; Mod.Pers. carx "wheel;" Av. caxra- "wheel;" Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle;" Rus. koleso "wheel."

Carx "wheel," akin to wheel, as above.

Wheeler-DeWitt equation
  هموگش ِ ویلر-دویت   
hamugeš-e Wheeler-DeWitt

Fr.: équation de Wheeler-DeWitt   

In → quantum gravity, an equation that describes the → wave function of the → Universe. It is an adaptation of the → Schrodinger equation but includes the curved space attributes of → general relativity.

Named after American theoretical physicists John Archibald Wheeler (1911-2008) and Bryce Seligman DeWitt (1923-2004).

whirl
  ۱) چرخیدن، گردیدن؛ ۲) چرخش، گردش   
1) carxidan, gardidan; 2) carxeš, gardeš

Fr.: 1) tourbillonner, tournoyer; 2) tourbillon, tournoiement   

1) To turn around or spin rapidly.
2) The act of whirling; rapid rotation. → whirlwind, → whirlpool, → dust whirl.

M.E. whirlen, from O.N. hvirfla "to whirl," akin to O.E. hwyrflung "turning, revolving."

rotate; → revolve.

whirlpool
  گرداب   
gerdâb (#)

Fr.: tourbillon   

A powerful water current moving rapidly in a circular manner, as that produced by the meeting of opposing currents, sucking down anything that comes within. → Whirlpool galaxy.

From whirl "to turn around," from M.E. whirlen, from O.N. hvirfla "to whirl," cognate with O.E. hweorfan "to turn;" + → pool "a body of water."

Gerdâb "whirlpool," from gerd from gardidan "to turn" (→ -tropic) + âb, → water.

Whirlpool galaxy (M51)
  کهکشان ِ گرداب   
kahkešân-e Gerdâb (#)

Fr.: galaxie du Tourbillon   

A large → spiral galaxy of type Sc seen → face-on in the constellation → Canes Venatici and lying about 31 million → light-years away. Also known as M51 and NGC 5194. It is interacting with a small irregular galaxy NGC 5195.

whirlpool; → galaxy.

whirlwind
  گردباد   
gerdbâd (#)

Fr.: tourbillon de vent   

A general term for a small-scale, rotating column of air. More specific terms are → dust whirl, → dust devil, → waterspout, and → tornado.

whirl; → wind.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>