An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
polarizing prism
  منشور ِ قطبنده   
manšur-e qotbandé

Fr.: prisme polarisant   

A prism that is used to produce or analyze plane-polarized light.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → prism.

pole
  قطب   
qotb (#)

Fr.: pôle   

1) Either extremity of the axis of the Earth or of any spherical body.
2) Either of the two regions or parts of an electric battery, magnet, or the like, at which the magnetic flux density is concentrated.
3) → pole of a mirror.
4) The fixed point in a system of polar coordinates that serves as the origin.

M.E., from L. polus "end of an axis, the sky," from Gk. polos "pivot, pole," polein "move around;" from PIE base *kwel- "to turn, move around, sojourn, dwell;" cognate with Pers. carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart;" Av. caxra- "wheel," caraiti "he moves, approaches;" cf. Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel" (loaned L.L. cyclus); L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "wheel."

Qotb, from Ar. quTb.

pole of a mirror
  قطب ِ آینه   
qotab-e âyene

Fr.: pôle de mirroir   

The point where the → principal axis passes through the mirror.

pole; → mirror.

pole star
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطبی   
setâre-ye qotbi (#)

Fr.: étoile polaire   

A star that lies in the direction pointed to by the Earth's → rotation axis. The term usually refers to the star → Polaris, which is the current → north celestial pole star. The → south celestial pole is not associated with any bright star.

pole; → star.

polhode
  قطبراه   
qotbrâh

Fr.: polhodie   

Mechanics: For a rotating rigid body not subject to external torque, the closed curve described on the → inertia ellipsoid by the intersection with this ellipsoid of an axis parallel to the angular velocity vector and through the center.
Astro.: The path described by the North pole of the Earth in a reference frame attached to the Earth. The rotation axis of our planet is not fixed with respect to the Earth's crust. It describes a motion within a square with an amplitude reaching 20 m.

Polhode, from Fr. polhodie, coined by Louis Poinsot (1777-1859), a French mathematician and physicist, the inventor of geometrical mechanics, from → pole + Gk. hodos "way."

Qotbrâh, from gotb, → pole, + râh "way, path" (from Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street," also rah, ras "chariot;" from Proto-Iranian *rāθa-; cf. Av. raθa- "chariot;" Skt. rátha- "car, chariot," rathyā- "road;" L. rota "wheel," rotare "to revolve, roll;" Lith. ratas "wheel;" O.H.G. rad; Ger. Rad; Du. rad; O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll").

policy
  کاراه، کارراه   
kârâh, kârrâh

Fr.: 1) ligne d'action; 2) politique   

1) A definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility, etc.
2) A course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc. (Dictionary.com).

M.E. policie "government, civil administration," from O.Fr. policie "political organization, civil administration," from L.L. politia "the state, civil administration," from Gk. politeia "state, administration, government, citizenship," from polites "citizen," from polis "city, state."

Kârâh, contraction of kâr râh, or râh-e kâr literally "way of doing, ~ ~ action," from râh, → way, + kâr "doing, action, → work."

policy maker
  کاراه‌پرداز   
kârâh pardâz

Fr.: responsable politique, décideur   

A person responsible for making policy, especially in government (Dictionary.com).

policy; → make; → -er.

polish
  نسوکردن   
nasu kardan

Fr.: polir   

To make smooth and glossy by rubbing with something.

M.E. polishen, from O.Fr. poliss-, pr.p. stem of polir "to polish," from L. polire "to polish, make smooth," of unknown origin.

Nasu kardan (Dehxodâ) "to polish, smooth, brighten," from nasu "smooth, bright" (mirror, sword), Mid.Pers. Manichean Parthian nswg "tender," from Proto-Iranian *ni-sau-, from prefix ni- "down," → ni- (PIE), + *sau- "to rub;" cf. Mod.Pers. sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch, to rub;" Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch."

polishing
  نسوکرد   
nasukard

Fr.: polissage   

A stage in the process of mirror making after grinding that puts a highly finished, smooth and apparently amorphous surface on a mirror. → figuring; → grinding.

Verbal noun of → polish.

politic
  کاراهی   
kârâhi

Fr.: politique   

1) Shrewd or prudent in practical matters; tactful; diplomatic.
2) Contrived in a shrewd and practical way.
3) Political (Dictionary.com).

M.E. politik, from M.Fr. politique "political," from L. politicus "of citizens or the state, civil, civic," from Gk. politikos "of citizens, pertaining to the state and its administrators," from polites "citizen," from polis "city."

Kârâhi, adj. of kârâh, → policy.

political
  کاراهی   
kârâhi

Fr.: politique   

Of, pertaining to, or concerned with → politics.

politic; → -al.

political scientist
  کاراهیکدان   
kârâhikdân

Fr.: spécialiste en sciences politiques   

A person who studies the structure and theory of government and seeks practical and theoretical solutions to political problems.

political; → scientist.

Kârâhikdân, literally "politics scientist," from kârâhik, → politics, + dân "knower," present stem of dânestan, → science.

politician
  کاراهیگر   
kârâhigar

Fr.: politicien   

1) A person who is active in party politics.
2) A person who holds a political office.
3) A person skilled in political government or administration; statesman or stateswoman (Dictionary.com).

From politic + -ian an agent noun suffix.

Kârâhigar, from kârâhi-, contraction of kârâhik, → politics, because of the k-g succession, + -gar, → -or.

politics
  کاراهیک   
kârâhik

Fr.: politique   

1) The science or art of → political  → government.
2) The practice or profession of conducting political affairs.
3) Political → principles or → opinions (Dictionary.com).

From adj. → politic modeled on Aristotle's ta politika "affairs of state," the name of his book on governing and governments; → -ics.

Kârâhik, from kârâh, → policy, + -ik, → -ics.

pollen
  گرده   
gardé (#)

Fr.: pollen   

Powdery grains that contain the male reproductive cells of most plants (Dictionary.com).

From L. pollen "mill dust; fine flour," related to polenta "peeled barley," and probably to Gk. poltos "pap, porridge."

Gardé, from gard "powder, dust."

pollution
  آلودگی   
âludegi (#)

Fr.: pollution   

The introduction of harmful substances or light into the natural environment as a consequence of human activities. → light pollution.
The act of polluting or the state of being polluted.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L.L. pollutionem "defilement," from L. polluere "to soil, defile," from pol-, variant of por- "forth, forward, before" + -luere "smear," related to lutum "mud," and to lues "filth; plague, pestilence;;" cf. Gk. luma "filth, dirt, disgrace;" O.Ir. loth "mud, dirt;" Lith. lutynas "pool, puddle;" Pers. âludan, as below.

&ACIRC;ludegi, from âludan, âlây-"to pollute, soil, stain;" Mid.Pers. âlutan; from prefixed Proto-Iranian *ā-rūta-, from rav- "to stain, soil;" Mid.Pers. Manichean Parthian rwd "rascal;" PIE base *leu- "dirty; to soil;" cf. L. lues, as above.

Pollux (β Geminorum)
  پولوکس   
Polluks (#)

Fr.: Pollux   

The brightest star in the constellation → Gemini despite its designation as β. Also known as HR 2990 and HD 62509. Pollux lies about 4 degrees apart from the blue star → Castor with which it has no physical connection. Pollux is an orange-red star with a → visual magnitude 1.14 (B - V = +1.00) located about 34 → light-years away. It is a → giant star of → spectral type K0 III, with a mass of 2 Msun, a radius of about 10Rsun, a luminosity of 43 Lsun, and an → effective temperature of 4666 K. Pollux has a large planet, → Pollux b, with a mass of at least 2.3 times the mass of Jupiter.

Pollux, Gk. Polydeucus is one of the "Heavenly Twins," brother to → Castor, sons of Leda and Zeus.

Pollux, loan from L., as above. It has a too long Ar. name: Al-Ra's-at-Tau'am-al-Mo'akhkhar (الرأس‌التوأم‌المؤخر) "the head of the posterior twin," translating the Gk. mythological figure.

Pollux b
  پولوکس b   
Polluks b

Fr.: Pollux b   

An → extrasolar planet orbiting the bright star → Pollux (β Gem). It lies approximately 34 → light-years away in the constellation → Gemini. Called also → Thestias, it has a mass of at least 2.30 → Jupiter mass, and orbits Pollux at a distance of about 1.64 → astronomical units once every 590 days.

Pollux.

poloidal magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ قطبی‌وار   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye qotbivâr

Fr.: champ magnétique poloïdal   

1) In → protoplanetary disk models, the magnetic field whose large-scale lines of force depart away from the → accretion disk, in the direction of the rotation axis.
2) In a → tokamak, the magnetic field produced by a current flowing in the → plasma vertically to the toroid plane. → toroidal magnetic field.

pole; → -oid; → magnetic field.

polonium
  پولونیوم   
poloniom (#)

Fr.: polonium   

A radioactive chemical element; symbol Po. Atomic number 84; mass number of most stable isotope 209; melting point 254°C; boiling point 962°C.

The name derives from Poland, the native country of Marie Sklodowska Curie. It was discovered by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898, from its radioactivity.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>