An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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subsonic
  زیر-صدایی   
zir-sedâyi

Fr.: subsonique   

Describing a speed that is less than the speed of sound in the medium concerned. → supersonic.

sub-; → sonic.

subsonic flow
  تچان ِ زیر-صدایی   
tacân-e zir-sedâyi

Fr.: écoulement subsonique   

A flow in which the velocity of the constituting particles never exceeds that of sound in the same fluid. Also called subcritical flow.

subsonic; → flow.

substance
  زیریست   
zirist

Fr.: substance   

1) That of which a thing consists; physical matter or material.
2) Physics: A species of matter, commonly homogeneous, that occurs in macroscopic amounts.
3) Philo.: That by virtue of which a thing has its determinate nature, which makes it what it is, as distinguished from something else.

M.E., from O.Fr. substance, from L. substantia "being, essence, material," from substans, pr.p. of substare "to stand under or be present," from → sub- "up to, under" + stare "to stand," cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," as below.

Zirist, literally "to stand under," from zir-, → sub-, + ist "to stand; to be standing, "from istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

substantive
  زیریستین   
ziristin

Fr.: substantif   

Grammar: A word or word group functioning syntactically as a noun. Substantives include nouns and → nominals.

M.E., from L.L. substantivus "of substance or being," from L. substantia "being, essence, material," → substance, contraction of "noun substantive" from L. nomen substantivum ("independent noun") as opposed to nomen adiectivum "noun adjective" ("dependent noun").

Ziristin, from zirist, → substance, + -in a suffix of relation.

substellar
  زیر-ستاره‌ای   
zir-setâre-yi

Fr.: sous-stellaire   

1) Pertaining to a class of objects with a mass less than 8 percent that of the Sun.
2) → substellar point.

sub- + → stellar.

substellar limit
  حدّ ِ زیر-ستاره‌ای   
hadd-e zir-setâre-yi

Fr.: limite sous-stellaire   

The mass limit below which → hydrogen fusion cannot take place, and the cloud collapse cannot lead to the formation of a star. The limit is 0.075 → solar masses, corresponding to about 80 Jupiter masses.

substellar; → limit.

substellar object
  بر‌آخت ِ زیر-ستاره‌ای   
bart-e zir-setâre-yi

Fr.: objet sous-stellaire   

An object with a mass too small to sustain the → proton-proton chain and thus become a true star. See → brown dwarf.

substellar; → object.

substellar point
  نقطه‌ی ِ زیر-ستاره‌ای   
noqte-ye zir-setâre-yi

Fr.: point substellaire   

The point on the Earth, or other body, at which a particular star is directly overhead at a given time.

substellar; → point.

substellarity
  زیر-ستارگی   
zir-setâregi

Fr.: nature sous-stellaire   

The fact or condition, for an object, of not being capable to sustain the → hydrogen fusion because of its low mass (less than 0.08 → solar masses).

substellar + → -ity.

subsystem
  زیر-راژمان   
zir-râžmân

Fr.: sous-système   

A coherent component of a larger system.

sub-; → system

subtend
  زیرتانیدن   
zirtânidan

Fr.: sous-tendre   

To be opposite and delimit the extent of an angle or side of a geometric figure.

From L. subtendere "to stretch beneath," from → sub- + tendere "to stretch," cognate with Pers. târ "string," tanidan "to weave," as below.

Zirtânidan from zir-, → sub-, + tânidan from tân "thread, warp of a web," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), târ "thread, warp, string," related to tur "net, fishing net, snare," from tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave;" Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- "to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch, as above; Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch."

subtended angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ زیرتانیده   
zâvie-ye zirtânidé

Fr.: angle sous-tendu   

An angle whose two sides pass through the endpoints of an arc.

Subtended p.p. of → subtend; → angle.

subterrestrial point
  نقطه‌ی ِ زیر-زمینی   
noqte-ye zir-zamini

Fr.: point subterrestre   

The point on the surface of a celestial body where the star is perceived to be directly overhead (in zenith). The sublunar point and subsolar point are the equivalent points for the Moon and Sun, respectively.

sub-; → terrestrial.

subtle
  نغز   
naqz (#)

Fr.: subtil   

Fine or delicate in meaning or intent.

M.E. sotil, from O.Fr. sotil, soutil, subtil "adept, adroit; cunning, wise; detailed," from L. subtilis "fine, thin, delicate, finely woven," from → sub- "under" + -tilis, from tela "web, net, warp of a fabric," → texture.

Naqz "subtle, elegant, beautiful, excellent, good."

subtract
  زیرکرشیدن، کاهیدن   
zirkaršidan, kâhidan

Fr.: soustraire   

To take one number away from another; deduct. To perform the arithmetic operation of → subtraction.

From L. subtractus, p.p. of subtrahere "to draw from beneath, take away, draw off," from → sub- "from under" + trahere "to pull, draw."

Zirkaršidan, literally "to draw beneath," from zir-, → sub-, + karšidan "to draw, pul, drag," variant of kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry;" Av. karš- "to draw; to plow," karša- "furrow;" Proto-Iranian *kerš-/*xrah- "to draw, plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."
Kâhidan, → decrease.

subtraction
  زیرکرشش   
zirkaršeš

Fr.: soustraction   

The operation of finding the difference between two numbers or quantities.

Verbal noun of → subtract.

subtractive
  زیرکرششی   
zirkaršeši

Fr.: soustractif   

1) Constituting or involving → subtraction.
2) Math.: Indicating or requiring subtraction; having a → minus sign.

subtract; → -ive.

subtractive color
  رنگ ِ زیرکرششی   
rang-e zirkaršeši

Fr.: synthèse soustractive   

Color produced by mixing pigments rather than light. Mixing all of the subtractive colors together results in the color black. See also → additive color.

subtractive; → color.

subtype
  زیر-گونه   
zir-guné

Fr.: sous-type   

A special type being part of a more general type, e.g. subtype 2 among G type stars. → subclass.

sub-; → type.

succeed
  کامیابیدن   
kâmyâbidan

Fr.: réussir   

1) To happen or terminate according to desire; turn out successfully; have the desired result.
2) To accomplish what is attempted or intended (Dictionary.com).

M.E. succeden, from O.Fr. succeder "to follow on" and directly from L. succedere "come after, follow after; go near to; come under; take the place of," also "go from under, mount up, ascend," hence "get on well, prosper, be victorious," from → sub- "next to, after" + cedere "to go, move" → process.

Kâmyâbidan, back formation from kâmyâbi, → success.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>