An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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clutter
  آلوزه   
âluzé

Fr.:   

A disorderly heap or assemblage; a state or condition of confusion.

Variant of clotter (now obsolete), from to clot + -er.

Âluzé, from Kurd. âluz, Tabari âluz, âliz "messy, disorderly, untidy," Dehxodâ âlofté "astonished; mad; broken," âloftan "to rage, grow mad."

CMB
     
CMB

Fr.: CMB   

See → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).

CMB, short for → Cosmic  → Microwave  → Background.

CMB angular power spectrum
  بیناب ِ توانی ِ زاویه‌ای ِ CMB   
binâb-e tavâni-ye zâviye-yi-e CMB

Fr.: spectre de puissance angulaire du CMB   

A plot displaying the amplitude of → cosmic microwave background anisotropy as a function of angular size or → multipole index. Same as → angular fluctuation spectrum. The plot, based the on WMAP and other data, shows a plateau at large angular or length scales (→ Sachs-Wolfe plateau), then a series of peaks at progressively smaller scales. These features arise from the gravity-driven acoustic oscillations of the coupled photon-baryon fluid in the early Universe (→ baryon acoustic oscillation). In particular, a strong peak is seen on an angular scale (at l ~220), corresponding to the physical length of the → sound horizon at the → recombination era. It depends on the curvature of space. If space is positively curved, then this sound horizon scale will appear larger on the sky than in a flat Universe (the first peak will move to the left). The second peak (l ~ 550), which is the first harmonic of the main peak, relates to the baryon/photon ratio. The third peak can be used to help constrain the total matter density.

angular; → fluctuation; → spectrum.

CMB lensing
  لنزش ِ CMB   
lenzeš-e CMB

Fr.: effet de lentille du rayonnement du fond cosmique, ~ ~ du CMB   

The gravitational effect of the intervening large-scale potentials on the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This effect smoothes out the temperature peaks and alters the statistics of the CMB.

CMB; → lensing.

CN molecule
  مولکول ِ CN   
molekul-e CN

Fr.: molécule CN   

The simplest molecule formed by the → cyano radical. The CN molecule is of considerable astrophysical importance, since many of its transition lines/bands are observed in various astronomical objects: interstellar medium, comets, various stars such as late-type F and G-dwarfs, and late-type giants. CN was the second interstellar molecule, after → CH (methylidine), to be identified; toward the bright star → Zeta Ophiuchi at ultraviolet wavelengths (A. McKellar, 1940 ASP Conf. Ser. 52, 187). CN was also one of the earliest molecules to be detected in other galaxies (Henkel et al. 1988, A&A 201L, 23).

cyano-; → molecule.

CNO
   CNO   
CNO

Fr.: CNO   

Referring to → carbon, → nitrogen, and → oxygen, as in → CNO cycle and → CNO star.

CNO.

CNO cycle
  چرخه‌یِ CNO   
carxe-ye CNO (#)

Fr.: cycle CNO   

A series of → nuclear reactions taking place in stars in which → carbon, → nitrogen, and → oxygen are used to transform → hydrogen into → helium. In → massive stars the carbon cycle is the dominant process of energy generation, whereas in → low-mass stars such as the Sun, the → proton-proton chain of reactions converts hydrogen into helium. The carbon cycle starts and ends with carbon-12, which acts as a catalyst in the sequential production of helium from hydrogen; neutrinos and gamma rays are also produced.

CNO; → cycle.

CNO star
  ستاره‌ی ِ CNO   
setâre-ye CNO

Fr.: étoile CNO   

A late → O-type star or an early → B-type star in whose spectrum the lines of some of the elements → carbon (C), → nitrogen (N), and → oxygen (O) are present.

CNO; → star.

CO formation
  دیسش ِ CO   
diseš-e CO

Fr.: formation de CO   

The chemical reaction that gives rise to → carbon monoxide in the → interstellar medium. According to models, several processes may lead to CO formation. For example, HCO+ + e → CO + H. The molecule HCO+ is itself produced through several paths, for example: H3+ + C → CH2+ + H, CH2+ + H2 → CH3+ + H, CH3+ + O → HCO+ + H. Alternatively: C+ + H2O → HCO+ + H. Another possibility: C+ + OH → CO+ + H, CO+ + H2→ HCO+ + H.

carbon monoxide; → formation.

CO ladder
  نردبان ِ CO   
nardebân-e CO

Fr.: échelle CO   

A spectral line energy distribution which plots the intensity of each → carbon monoxide (CO) transition as a function of the upper J number. This type of → diagram is a powerful diagnostic tool, where models show that these CO ladders have very different shapes depending on the type of excitation (i.e. photon dominated region, PDR or X-ray dominated region, XDR) as well as density and radiation environment.

carbon monoxide (CO); → ladder.

co-
  هم-   
ham- (#)

Fr.: co-   

com-.

co-added image
  وینه‌ی ِ هم‌افزوده، تصویر ِ ~   
vine-ye hamafzudé, tasvir-e ~

Fr.: image intégrée   

An image made up of several individual images of relatively short exposure times which are added together in order to produce a final image of higher quality.

Co-added, from → co- "together" + added p.p. of → add; → image.

Tasvir, → image; hamafzudé from ham- "together", → com-, + afzudé p.p. of afzudan, → add.

co-orbital
  هم‌مدار   
ham-madâr

Fr.: co-orbital   

Of or relating to two or more celestial bodies that share, or almost share, the same orbit.

co-; → orbital.

co-orbital motion
  جنبش ِ هم‌مداری   
jonbeš-e ham-madâri

Fr.: mouvement co-orbital   

The motion of two or more bodies around the Sun on different orbits when it takes them the same amount of time to complete one revolution. There are three possible types of co-orbital motions of a small body associated with a planet: → tadpole orbits, → horseshoe orbits, and → quasi-satellite orbits.

co-orbital; → motion.

co-orbital satellite
  ماهواره‌ی ِ هم‌مدار، بنده‌وار ِ ~   
mâhvâre-ye ham-madâr, bandevâr-e ~

Fr.: satellite co-orbital   

Any of satellites which either share the same orbit or which occupy immediately adjacent orbits that change periodically as the satellites approach one another (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

co-orbital; → satellite.

co-orbiting
  هم‌مداری؛ هم‌مدار   
ham-madâri; ham-madâr

Fr.: co-orbitage; c-orbitant, co-orbiteur   

The action or quality of a → co-orbiting asteroid.

From co- "together," → com- + → orbit + → -ing.

From ham- "together," → com- + madârorbit + -i noun suffix.

co-orbiting asteroid
  سیارک ِ هم‌مدار   
sayyârak-e ham-madâr

Fr.: astéroïde co-orbiteur   

An asteroid having a → co-orbital motion.

co-orbiting; → asteroid.

coagulate
  ماسیدن، رچیدن، لخته بستن   
mâsidan, rocidan, laxté bastan

Fr.: coaguler   

1) (v.int.) Generally, of liquids, to change into a thickened mass, curdle; congeal.
2) Biology, Medicine: of blood, to form a clot.
3) Physical chemistry: of colloidal particles, to flocculate or cause to flocculate.
4) Astrophysics: of dust grains in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, to grow into larger entities. → dust coagulation.

Mâsidan "to coagulate, clot," originally "of milk, to turn into yogurt," mâst "clotted milk, yogurt;" Gilaki mas, Lori mâs, Kurd. mâzd, mâst, Sangesari must, Baluchi madhagh, mastagh; Mid.Pers. mâs- "to coagulate, become hard;" cf. Skt. mástu- "milk cream," Arm. macum "soar milk," macanim "to clot, congeal."
Rocidan from Lori roc "congealed," rocesse "to congeal, clot."
Laxté bastin lit. "coagulate into (solid) piece," from laxté "piece, part, portion," + bastan "to coagulate, congeal; to bind, shut" (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).

coagulation
  ماسش، رچش، لخته بندی   
mâseš, roceš, laxté bandi

Fr.: coagulation   

Verbal noun from → coagulate.
Physical chemistry: A separation or precipitation of particles from a dispersed state in a colloid solution.
Astrophysics: The mechanism by which dust grains grow into larger entities in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks. → dust coagulation.

Verbal noun from → coagulate.

coal
  زغال‌سنگ   
zoqâlsang (#)

Fr.: charbon, houille   

A black, hard mineral consisting of carbon and various carbon compounds. Coal is formed from the decomposition of ancient plants buried deep in the Earth's crust for millions of years. It is currently the most widely used substance to generate electricity and heat. Its combustion products are used as raw material for a variety of products including cement, asphalt, and plastics. Due to the harmful gases that it releases, the use of coal is constantly being reduced as alternative fuels are found.

M.E. cole, from O.E. col "charcoal, live coal;" (cf. O.Fr. kole, M.Du. cole, Du. kool, O.H.G. chol, Ger. Kohle, from PIE root *g(e)u-lo- "live coal" (cf. Irish gual "coal").

From zoqâl, → charcoal, + sang, → stone.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>