An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13046 Search : far
nyctalopia
  شبکوری   
šabkuri (#)

Fr.: nyctalopie   

Same as → night blindness; opposite of → hemeralopia.

L.L. nyctalopia, from Gk. nukt, → night + al(aos) "blind" + -opia, akin to ope "view, look," ops "eye."

Šabkuri, from šab, → night, + kuri "blindness," from kur, → blind.

Nyquist formula
  دیسول ِ نیکویءیست   
disul-e Nyquist

Fr.: formule de Nyquist   

The mean square noise voltage across a resistance in thermal equilibrium is four times the product of the resistance, Boltzmann's constant, the absolute temperature, and the frequency range within which the voltage is measured. → Johnson-Nyquist noise.

Named after Harry Nyquist (1889-1976), a Swedish-born American physicist, who made important contributions to information theory. → Johnson-Nyquist noise; → formula.

Nyquist frequency
  بسامد ِ نیکویءیست   
basâmad-e Nyquist

Fr.: fréquence de Nyquist   

The highest frequency that can be determined in a Fourier analysis of a discrete sampling of data.

Nyquist formula; → frequency.

Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem
  فربین ِ نمونان‌گیری ِ نیکویءیست-شانون   
farbin-e nemunân-giri-ye Nyquist-Shannon

Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage de Nyquist-Shannon   

The minimum number of resolution elements required to properly sample a signal, such as a star image, without causing erroneous effects known as aliasing. For electronic imaging, this number is generally taken as 2 pixels across the seeing disk diameter at the half intensity points. Also called → Shannon's sampling theorem and → sampling theorem.

Named after Harry Nyquist (1889-1976), a Swedish-born American physicist, who made important contributions to information theory, and Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001), an American mathematician and pioneer of information theory; → theorem.

O star
  ستاره‌ی ِ O   
setâre-ye O (#)

Fr.: étoile de type O   

A luminous, hot, blue star whose spectrum is dominated by the lines of hydrogen, atomic helium, and ionized helium; also known as O-type star. This is the earliest → spectral type and the only → main sequence star in which ionized helium is present. The → effective temperatures of these stars range from about 30,000 K to 50,000 K, their luminosities from 50,000 to 1,000,000 times that of → solar luminosity, and their masses from about 20 to 100 → solar masses. The hottest O-type stars display high ionization emission features such as N III and He II, → Of star. They are divided into subtypes O2, the hottest, to O9.7, the coldest. O-type stars are relatively rare, for each star of 100 solar masses there are 106 stars of solar mass. They are relatively short-lived since they spend only a few million years on the main sequence. The brightest O-type star in the sky visible with naked eye is → Alnitak. For prominent Galactic O stars see → HD 93129.

O, letter of alphabet used in the Harvard spectral classification; → star.

O-point
  نقطه‌ی ِ O   
noqte-te O

Fr.: point O   

The circular configuration of magnetic field lines around a → magnetic null point. See also → X-point.

O, the round letter of alphabet; → point.

O-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ O   
setâre-ye gune-ye O

Fr.: étoile de type O   

Same as → O star.

O, letter of alphabet used in the → Harvard classification; → type; → star.

OB association
  آهزش ِ OB   
âhazeš-e OB

Fr.: association OB   

A loosely bound grouping of O and B stars that typically stretches up to several hundred → light-years and may contain between a dozen and several hundred → O stars and → B stars. The members of an OB association are young and of roughly the same age. OB associations dissipate in a few tens of millions of years.

O and B, from spectral types; → association.

OB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ OB   
setâre-ye OB

Fr.: étoile OB   

A collective designation for massive O and B stars.

O star; → B star.

OB subdwarf (sdOB)
  زیر-کوتوله‌ی ِ OB   
zir-kutule-ye OB

Fr.: sous-naine OB   

A hot star belonging to one of the two groups of → EHB stars or → pre-WD stars.

OB star; → subdwarf.

OBC star
  ستاره‌ی ِ OBC   
setâre-ye OBC

Fr.: étoile OBC   

A → carbon (C)-rich → O-type or → B-type star.

O star; → B star; → carbon; → star.

obelus
  نشانه‌ی ِ بخش   
nešâne-ye baxš

Fr.: obélus   

The symbol ÷ used to indicate → division. This symbol was first used as a → division sign by Johann Rahn (or Rhonius) (1622-1676) in 1659 in Teutsche Algebra.

From Gk. obelus "sharpened stick, spit, pointed pillar," related to obelisk, originally used in ancient manuscripts to mark passages that were suspected of being corrupted, doubtful, or spurious.

division sign.

Oberon
  ا ُبرون   
Oberon (#)

Fr.: Oberon   

The outermost of Uranus' large satellites and the second largest. It has a diameter of 523 km and orbits 583,420 km from its planet. Compared to Uranus' moons Ariel, Titania, and Miranda, Oberon is heavily cratered. Like all of Uranus' large moons, Oberon is composed of roughly half ice and half rock. Oberon was discovered by Herschel in 1787.

Oberon is the King of the Fairies and husband of Titania in Shakespeare's Midsummer-Night's Dream.

object
  ۱، ۲، ۳، ۴، ۵، ۶) بر‌آخت؛ ۷) کندار   
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) barâxt; 7) kondâr

Fr.: objet   

1) General: Anything that is visible or tangible.
2) Physics: A collection of masses, taken to be one.
3) Optics: The collection of points that acts as a source of light rays for an optical system.
4) Astro.: A general designation for material bodies studied in this science.
5) Math.: Anything that could be formally defined, and with which one may do deductive reasoning and mathematical proofs. → mathematical object
6) Computer science: A free standing chunk of code that defines the properties of some thing.
7) Grammar: In English grammar, a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that is affected by the action of a verb (a direct object or an indirect object) or that completes the meaning of a preposition (the object of a preposition).

From M.L. objectum "thing thrown down or put before" (the mind or sight), neutral of objectus, p.p. of obicere "to present, oppose, cast in the way of," from ob "against" + jacere "to throw," from PIE base *ye- "to do" (cf. Gk. iemi, ienai "to send, throw," Hitt. ijami "I make").

Barâxt "thing drawn against, before" from bar- + âxt. The prefix bar- "on; upon; against; before; at; in," from Mid.Pers. abar, O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to," Av. upairi "above, over" (upairi.zəma- "located above the earth"), cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above," L. super-, O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over".
The second component âxt, contraction of âxté, p.p. of âxtan, variants âhixtan, âhiz- "to draw (a sword)," âhanjidan "to draw up, pull, extract," Mid.Pers. âhixtan, âhanjitan "to draw out, pull up, extract," Av. θanj- "to draw, pull, drive;" Proto-Iranian *θanj-.
Kondâr, literally "action receiver," from kon- present stem of kardan "to do, make," → -or, used as action noun (like xor, xâb, foruš), + dâr agent noun from dâštan "to receive" (Dehxodâ), originally "to have, hold, possess," → property.

object glass
  بر‌آختی   
barâxti

Fr.: objectif   

The → lens or lenses in the → object end of the body tube of a → microscope, by means of which the rays coming from the object examined are brought to a focus. Same as → objective. An old term for the → objective lens of a → refracting telescope.

object; → glass.

object language
  زبان ِ بر‌آخت   
zabân-e barâxt

Fr.: langue objet   

Any language described by a → metalanguage. For example, the sentence "In Persian, the word setâré means "star" " is part of a metalanguage (here, English), and the language described (namely Persian) is an object language. Metalanguage and object language may be identical.

object; → language.

object space
  فضای ِ بر‌آخت   
fazâ-ye barâxt

Fr.: espace objet   

In an → optical system, the space between the object being viewed and the → entrance pupil. See also → image space.

object; → space.

object-oriented programming
  برنامه‌سازی ِ بر‌آخت‌گرا   
barnâme-sâzi-ye barâxt-gerâ

Fr.: programme orienté objet   

In computer science a programming technique that uses → objects and their interactions to design applications and programs.

object; oriented, p.p. from the verb of → orientation; → programming.

Barnâme-sâzi, → programming; barâxt, → object; gerâ agent adj. of gerâyidan "to incline toward; to intend; to make for." The stem gerâ may be a variant of Mod.Pers. kil "bent, inclined" (k/g and l/r interchanges), from PIE base *klei- "to lean, incline," cognate with L. clinare "to bend" (E. declination, inclination, etc.), Gk. klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline," Skt. sri- "to lean," O.Pers. θray-, Av. sray- "to lean," P.Gmc. *khlinen (Ger. lehnen, E. lean).

objective
  ۱، ۲، ۳) بر‌آختی؛ ۴) کنداری   
1, 2, 3) barâxti; 4) kondâri

Fr.: objectif   

1a) Of or pertaining to something that can exist independent of thought or perception as part of reality. Opposite of → subjective.
1b) Free of any bias or prejudice caused by personal feelings.
2) The → lens or combination of lenses nearest the → object in an optical instrument ( → telescope, → microscope, → camera).
3) The → primary mirror of a → reflecting telescope.
4) Grammar: Relating to nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns that are the objects of verbs or prepositions.

Adjective of → object.

objective grating
  توری ِ بر‌آختی   
turi-ye barâxti

Fr.: réseau-objectif   

A diffraction grating placed over the aperture of a telescope in order to produce spectra of all the objects in the field of view.

objective; → grating.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>