An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Kuiper belt object (KBO)
  بر‌آخت ِ کمربند ِ کویپر   
barâxt-e kamarband-e Kuiper

Fr.: objet de la ceinture de Kuiper   

A → Solar System object belonging to the → Kuiper belt. The largest known objects of this type are → Pluto and its moon → Charon, → Quaoar, → Sedna, and → Orcus. See also → trans-Neptunian object.

Kuiper belt; → object.

kurtosis
  افراشتگی   
afrâštegi (#)

Fr.: aplatissement   

The measure of "peakedness" of the curve describing a frequency distribution in the region about its mode. The kurtosis of the normal distribution is 0.

From Gk. kurtosis "bulging, curvature," from kurtos "convex," kirkos "a ring;" cf. Av. skarəna- "round;" L. circus "circle, ring;" PIE base *sker- "to turn, bend."

Afrâštegi condition, state adj. of afrâšté "elevated, erect, upright," p.p. of afrâštan "to raise, exalt, extole," from Mid.Pers. abrâstan, abrâz- "to lift, raise," from ab-, from O.Pers./Av. abiy-/aiwi- "to, upon, against;" cf. Skt. abhi-, Gk. amphi- + râst "straight, direct, true;" from O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule."

L dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ L   
kutule-ye L

Fr.: naine L   

A type of → brown dwarf with an → effective temperature ranging from about 2200 K to about 1300 K, corresponding to luminosities about 4 x 10-4 to 3 x 10-5 times that of the Sun. L dwarfs are intermediate in temperature between M and → T dwarfs. Their spectra in the optical show weak titanium oxide (TiO) and vanadium oxide (VO) absorption lines and strong metallic hydrides CrH (8611 and 9969 Å) and FeH (8692 and 9896 Å). Also are present strong neutral atomic lines of alkali metals Na I (8183, 8195 Å), K I (7665, 7699 Å), Rb I (7800, 7948 Å), Cs I (8521, 8943 Å), and sometimes Li I (6708 Å). The prototype of the L-dwarf class is → GD 165B. The spectral classification was first defined by Kirkpatrick et al. 1999, ApJ 519, 802 and Martin et al. 1999, AJ 118, 2466.

For the reasoning behind the choice of the letter L, see Kirkpatrick et al. 1993, ApJ 406, 701; → dwarf.

L2 Puppis
   L2 پسال   
L2 Pasâl

Fr.: L2 Puppis   

A → semiregular variable with a period of 141 days. It has a → spectral type of M5 III corresponding to an → effective temperature of ~ 3500 K. It has a radial velocity relative to the → Local Standard of Rest of 33.3 km s-1. At a distance of 64 → parsecs, L2 Pup is the second nearest → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star next to R Doradus; it is ~ 30% closer than → Mira. Recent → near-infrared JHKL band observations by Kervella et al. (2014, 2015) show a compact dust disk around the central star, with an inner rim of 6 → astronomical units and an outer edge of 13 au, at an inclination of approximately 82°. The → circumstellar environment of L2 Pup was observed with → ALMA. The → molecular emission shows a → differentially rotating disk, inclined to a nearly edge-on position (Homan et al., 2017, A&A 601, A5 and references therein).

Star name in the → Bayer designation scheme; → Puppis.

La Nina
  لا نی‌نیا   
La Ninya (#)

Fr.: La Niña   

La Niña. A condition in which a significant decrease (more than 0.5 °C from average water temperatures) occurs in sea surface temperature (cold event) in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. La Niña has a natural 3-6 year cycle and can persist for 1-3 years. It is the counterpart to the → El Nino (warm event), and its spatial and temporal evolution in the equatorial Pacific is, to a considerable extent, the mirror image of El Niño, although La Niña events tend to be somewhat less regular in their behavior and duration.

American Sp. La Niña "the girl," to distinguish it from → El Nino.

La Silla Observatory
  نپاهشگاه ِ لا سی‌یا   
nepâhešgâh-e La Silla

Fr.: Observatoire de La Silla   

The site of the → European Southern Observatory's first observatory in Chile, inaugurated in 1969. It is located 160 km north of the town of La Serena and 600 km north of Santiago at an altitude of 2,400 m bordering the southern extremity of the Atacama Desert. La Silla is equipped with several optical telescopes with mirror diameters of up to 3.6 m. The 3.5 m New Technology Telescope was the first in the world to have a computer-controlled main mirror, a technology developed at ESO. The ESO 3.6 m telescope is now home to the world's largest extrasolar planet hunter: HARPS (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher), a spectrograph with unrivalled precision.

From Sp. la silla "the saddle," after the apparent shape of the mountain on which the observatory is situated. Originally known as Cinchado.

laboratory
  آزمایشگاه   
âzmâyešgâh (#)

Fr.: laboratoire   

A building or place equipped for carrying out scientific research, experimentation, investigation, observation, etc.

M.L. laboratorium "a place for labor or work," from L. laboratus, p.p. of laborare "to work."

Âzmâyešgâh, from âzmâyeš, → experiment, + -gâh "place, time," → university.

Lacerta
  چلپاسه   
calpâse (#)

Fr.: Lézard   

The Lizard. A small constellation in the northern hemisphere, at about 22h right ascension, 45° north declination. Its brightest star is only of magnitude +3.8, and the constellation contains no other star above fourth magnitude. Its most famous object is BL Lacerta, the prototype → BL Lac objects. Abbreviation: Lac; genitive: Lacertae.

From L. lacertus (fem. lacerta) "lizard," of unknown origin.

Calpâsé "lizard," variants karpâsa, karisa, kelpasa; cf. Skt. krakacapad- "saw-footed, a lizard, chameleon," from krakaca- "saw" + pad "foot" (Pers. ).

lack
  ۱) نست؛ ۲) نستیدن   
1) nast; 2) nastidan

Fr.: 1) manque; 2) manquer   

1a) Deficiency or absence of something needed, desirable, or customary.
1b) Something missing or needed. See also → default, → deficiency, → shortage.
2a) (v.tr.) To be without or deficient in; to fall short in respect of.
2b) (v.intr.) to be absent or missing, as something needed or desirable (Dictionary.com).

M.E. lak; cognate with M.L.G. lak, M.Du. lac "deficiency;" akin to O.Norse lakr "deficient."

Nast, from negation prefix na- "in-, non," → not, + ast, hast "is," from astan, hastan "to be," → exist.

lacking
  نستان، نستنده   
nastân, nastandé

Fr.: manquant   

Absent; wanting; deficient.

lack; → -ing.

ladder
  نردبان   
nerdebân (#)

Fr.: échelle   

1) A piece of equipment consisting of a series of bars or steps between two upright lengths of wood, metal, or rope, used for climbing up or down something.
2) A series of ascending stages by which someone or something may progress (OxfordDictionaries.com).

M.E. laddre, O.E. hlæder "ladder, steps" (cognates: M.Du. ledere, O.H.G. leitara, Ger. Leiter), from PIE root *klei- "to lean," → incline.

Nardebân "ladder."

lag
  ۱) لک؛ ۲) لکیدن   
1) lek; 2) lekidan

Fr.: 1) retard, décalage; 2) rester en arrière traîner   

1a) A lagging or falling behind; retardation.
1b) Mechanics: The amount of retardation of some motion.
1c) Electricity: The retardation of one alternating quantity, as current, with respect to another related alternating quantity, as voltage.
2) To fail to maintain a desired pace or to keep up; fall or stay behind (Dictionary.com).

Possibly from Scandinavian; cf. Norwegian lagga "to go slowly."

Lek, from lek lek kardan "to walk slowly, to lag behind."

lagoon
  مرداب   
mordâb (#)

Fr.: lagune   

1) A body of seawater that is almost completely cut off from the ocean by a barrier beach.
2) The body of seawater that is enclosed by an atoll.

Lagoon, from Fr. lagune, from It. laguna "pond, lake," from L. lacuna "pond, hole," from lacus "pond;" → nebula.

Mordâb "lagoon," literally "dead water," from mord, mordé "dead" + âb "water."
The first element from mordan, mir- "to die," marg "death," mard "man;" Mid.Pers. murdan "to die;" O.Pers. marta- "dead," martiya- "man;" Av. mərəta- "died, dead," amərətāt- "immortality;" cf. Skt. mar- "to die," mriyáe "dies;" Gk. emorten "to die," ambrotos "immortal;" L. morior "to die" (Fr. mourir), mors, mortis "death" (Fr. mort), immortalis "immortal;" Lith. mirtis "mortal;" O.C.S. mrutvu "dead;" O.Ir. marb; Welsh marw "died;" O.E. morþ "murder;" PIE base *mor-/*mr- "to die."
The second element âb "water," from Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook."

Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523)
  میغ ِ مرداب   
miq-e mordâb (#)

Fr.: nébuleuse de la lagune   

A giant → H II region lying in the direction of → Sagittarius about 5,000 → light-years away. It represents a giant cloud of interstellar matter which is currently undergoing star formation, and has already formed a considerable cluster of young stars (NGC 6530).

lagoon; → nebula.

Lagrange's equations
  هموگش‌های ِ لاگرانژ   
hamugešhâ-ye Lagrange

Fr.: équation de Lagrange   

A set of second order → differential equations for a system of particles which relate the kinetic energy of the system to the → generalized coordinates, the generalized forces, and the time. If the motion of a → holonomic system is described by the generalized coordinates q1, q2, ..., qn and the → generalized velocities  q.1, q.2, ..., q.n, the equations of the motion are of the form: d/dt (∂T/∂q.i) - ∂T/∂q.i = Qi (i = 1, 2, ..., n), where T is the kinetic energy of the system and Qi the generalized force.

Lagrangian; → equation.

Lagrangian
  لاگرانژی   
lâgrânži

Fr.: lagrangien   

1) Of or relating to Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), see below.
2) Same as → Lagrangian function. The Lagrangian of a → dynamical system describes its → dynamics and when subjected to an → action gives rise to → field equations and a → conservation law for the theory. Lagrangians are the keys for the mathematical formulation of field theories ( → field theory).
See also:
inner Lagrangian point, → Lagrangian density, → Lagrangian dynamics, → Lagrangian formalism, → Lagrangian function, → Lagrangian method, → Lagrangian multiplier, → Lagrangian particle, → Lagrangian point.

After the French/Italian mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), who was the creator of the → calculus of variations (at the age of nineteen). He made also great advances in the treatment of → differential equations and applied his mathematical techniques to problems of → mechanics, especially those arising in astronomy.

Lagrangian density
  چگالی ِ لاگرانژی   
cagâli-ye Lagranži

Fr.: densité lagrangienne   

A quantity, denoted Ld, describing a continuous system in the → Lagrangian formalism, and defined as the → Lagrangian per unit volume. It is related to the Lagrangian L by:
L = ∫∫∫Ld d3V.
Lagrangian density is often called Lagrangian when there is no ambiguity.

Lagrangian; → density.

Lagrangian dynamics
  توانیک ِ لاگرانژی   
tavânik-e lâgrânži

Fr.: dynamique lagrangienne   

A reformulation of → Newtonian mechanics in which dynamical properties of the system are described in terms of generalized variables. In this approach the → generalized coordinates and → generalized velocities are treated as independent variables. Indeed applying Newton's laws to complicated problems can become a difficult task, especially if a description of the motion is needed for systems that either move in a complicated manner, or other coordinates than → Cartesian coordinates are used, or even for systems that involve several objects. Lagrangian dynamics encompasses Newton dynamics, and moreover leads to the concept of the → Hamiltonian of the system and a process by means of which it can be calculated. The Hamiltonian is a cornerstone in the field of → quantum mechanics.

Lagrangian; → dynamics.

Lagrangian formalism
  دیسه‌گرایی ِ لاگرانژ   
disegerâyi-ye Lâgranži

Fr.: formalisme lagrangien   

A reformulation of classical mechanics that describes the evolution of a physical system using → variational principle The formalism does not require the concept of force, which is replaced by the → Lagrangian function. The formalism makes the description of systems more simpler. Moreover, the passage from classical description to quantum description becomes natural. Same as → Lagrangian dynamics.

Lagrangian; → formalism.

Lagrangian function
  کریای ِ لاگرانژ   
karyâ-ye lâgrânž (#)

Fr.: Lagrangien, fonction de Lagrange   

A physical quantity (denoted L), defined as the difference between the → kinetic energy (T) and the → potential energy (V) of a system: L = T - V. It is a function of → generalized coordinates, → generalized velocities, and time. Same as → Lagrangian, → kinetic potential.

Lagrangian; → function.

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