An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
critique
  پرژن   
paržan

Fr.: critique   

1) An article or essay criticizing a literary or other work; detailed evaluation; review.
2) A criticism or critical comment on some problem, subject, etc.
3) The art or practice of criticism (Dictionary.com).

M.E. critick, changed to Fr. spelling, from M.Fr. critique, from L. criticus "a judge, literary critic," from Gk. kritikos "able to make judgments," from krinein "to sift, separate, decide;" cognate with Pers. qarbâl "sieve," → sieve of Eratosthenes, from PIE base *krei- "to sift, distinguish."

Paržan, from Tâti Karingâni puržen, Zazaki pirožin, Tabari parjan "sieve," related to parvizan "sieve" (Laki vežonen "to sift"); ultimately from Proto-Ir. *pari-uaicana-, from the base *uaic- "to separate, sift, select, sort out;" Av. vaēc- "to select, sort out, sift;" Mod.Pers. bixtan, biz- "to sift."

crop
  ۱) کاشار؛ ۲) کاشاردن   
1) kâšâr; 2) kâšârdan

Fr.: 1) récolte; 2) récolter, moissonner   

1a) Cultivated plants or agricultural produce, such as grain, vegetables, or fruit, considered as a group (e.g. a wheat crop, farmers harvest crop).
1b) The total yield of such produce in a particular season or place.
2) To harvest (TheFreeDictionary.com).

M.E. crop, croppe, from O.E. cropp "head or top of a sprout or herb, any part of a medicinal plant except the root," also "bird's craw," cognate with O.H.G. kropf, Du. krop "crop."

Kâšâr, literally "yield of cultivating," from kâš, contratction of kâšt-, kâštan "to cultivate, plant, sow," + âr contraction of âvar present stem of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce," → format.

cross
  ۱، ۲) چلیپا، خاج؛ ۳) گذشتن   
1, 2) calipâ (#), xâj (#); 3) gozštan (#)

Fr.: 1,2) croix; 3) traverser   

1a) The Southern Cross, → Crux. 1b) A figure or pattern formed by the intersection of two lines.
2a) (adj.) Involving interchange; reciprocal.
2b) Lying or passing crosswise; intersecting.
3) To move or go across (something); traverse or intersect.

M.E. cros, from O.E., probably from Old Norse kross, from O.Ir. cros, from L. crux "stake, cross."

Calipâ, loanword from Aramaic.
Xâj loanword from Arm.
Gozaštan, Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Sogdian wytr "to go," O.Pers./Av. vitar- "to put across," from prefix vi- "away, apart," + tar- "to cross over" (Skt. tr- "to cross over," tarati "crosses," cf. Av. taro, Skt. tirah "through, beyond," L. trans "beyond," Ger. durch, E. through; PIE base *tr- "through").

cross correlation
  هم‌باز‌آنش ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
hamvbâzâneš-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: corrélation croisée   

In radio astronomy, the process performed by a → cross correlator or the result of the process.

cross; → correlation.

cross correlator
  هم‌باز‌آن‌گر ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
hambâzângar-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: corrélateur   

In radio interferometry, a device that multiplies together the signals received by each pair of antennas in an array and performs several operations on the signal (filtering out the noise added to the signal by the receiver electronics, correcting for the Doppler shift and geometric delay due to the position and motion of the antennas). The correlated signal, corresponding to the spatial frequency given by the distance between the two antennas, is then combined with the other spatial frequency to reconstruct the map of the source.

cross; → correlator.

cross disperser
  پاشنده‌ی ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
pâšande-ye calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.:   

A device producing cross dispersion.

cross; → disperser.

cross dispersion
  پاشش چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
pâšeš-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: dispersion croisée   

Dispersion of a light beam by using two dispersing elements (grating, grism), one for separating spectral orders, the other for resolving spectral features within an order.

cross; → dispersion.

cross identification
  ایدانش ِ چلیپایی   
idâneš-e calipâyi

Fr.: identification croisée   

The identification of an object in a data base or catalog and matching it with the same object identified in another catalog.

cross; → identification.

cross product
  فر‌آورد ِ برداری   
farâvard-e bordâri

Fr.: produit vectoriel   

Same as → vector product.

cross; → product.

cross reference
  بازبرد ِ دوسویه، ~ چندسویه   
bâzbord-e dosuyé (#), ~ candsuyé (#)

Fr.: référence croisée   

Reference from one part or element of a book or data catalog to something in another for further information.

cross; → reference.

cross section
  سکنج‌گاه   
sekanjgâh

Fr.: 1) section plane; 2) section efficace   

1) Math: The intersection of a plane with a geometric figure, usually at right angles to an axis of symmetry.
2) Physics: A quantity that expresses the effective area that a given particle presents as a target to another incident particle, giving a measure of the probability that the incident particle will induce a particular atomic or nuclear reaction. Also called collision cross section. The cross section has the dimensions of a surface. In nuclear and particle physics, the commonly used units for the cross section are the barn and cm2.

In classical mechanics, the cross section for the collision of a point particle with a hard sphere is just be the surface of a section through the middle of the sphere. This explains the name "cross section." → cross; → section.

cross-dispersing spectrograph
  بیناب‌نگار با پاششِ چلیپا‌یی، ~ ~ ~ خاجی   
binâbnegâr bâ pâšeâš-e chalipaayi, ~ ~ ~ xâji

Fr.: spectrographe à dispersion croisée   

A spectrograph that utilizes cross dispersion.

cross; → dispersion; → spectrograph.

crosshairs
  تاربست   
târbast (#)

Fr.: réticule   

A system of two perpendicular fine threads of wire placed in the focus of the eyepiece of an optical instrument and used as a sighting reference.

cross; → hair.

Târbast, from târ + bast. The first component târ "thread, string, wire," cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave," → tension; the second component bast "to bind; to arrange" (past stem of bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," → band.

crossing time
  زمان ِ گذر   
zamân-e gozar (#)

Fr.: temps de traversée   

A concept used for checking the stability of a group of mass such as a → cluster of galaxies or a → star cluster. The crossing time is given by tc = R/V, where R is the average projected radial distance of group members from the center of mass and V the Gaussian dispersion in internal velocity.

cross; → time.

crow
  زاغ   
zâq (#)

Fr.: corneille   

Any of several large oscine birds of the genus Corvus, of the family Corvidae, having a long, stout bill, lustrous black plumage, and a wedge-shaped tail (Dictionary.com).

O.E. crawe, imitative of the bird's cry; cf. O.Saxon kraia; Du. kraai; O.H.G. chraja; Ger. Kräke; L. corvus "a raven," Gk. korax; cognate with Pers. kalâq, → raven.

Zâq "crow, raven," of unknown origin.

crowd
  ۱) چپیره؛ ۲) چپیریدن   
1) capiré (#); 2) capiridan

Fr.: 1) foule, multitude; 2) entasser   

1a) A large number of persons gathered closely together; throng.
1b) Any large number of persons.
1c) Any group or set of persons with something in common.
2) To gather in large numbers; throng; swarm (Dictionary.com).
crowded, → crowded field, → crowding.

M.E. crowden, from O.E. crudan "to press, crush;" akin to M.Du. cruden "to press, push," M.H.G. kroten "to press, oppress," Norwegian kryda "to crowd."

Capiré (Dehxodâ), variants cabiré, capar "crowd, troop, people gathered for something." Capiré, from capir, from capar, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-par-, from *par- "to fill;" cf. Av. pər- "to fill, stuff with," pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Pers. anbâr "ricks, storehouse," por, bol "full, much, many;" PIE *pel- "to fill;" → population.

crowded
  چپیرناک، چپیریده   
capirnâk, capiridé

Fr.: encombré, bondé   

Filled so that there is little or no room for anyone or anything else. → crowded field.

Past participle of → crowd.

crowded field
  میدان ِ چپیرناک   
meydân-e capirnâk

Fr.: champ encombré   

An area on the sky where a large number of objects, commonly stars, are seen gathered together, usually as revealed by imaging.

crowded; → field.

crowding
  چپیرش، چپیرناکی   
capireš, capirnâki

Fr.: encombrement   

1) The state or action of filling a particular place in large numbers.
2) For a → field of view, state of containing a large number of objects.

Verbal noun of → crowd.

crowdsourcing
  چپیره‌خنی   
capiré-xani

Fr.: crowdsourcing   

The process of procuring needed services by soliciting a large group of people outside the demanding company, society, or institute. Two examples of crowdsourcing in astronomy involve → variable star studies and search for → meteorites.

Combination of → crowd and → outsourcing.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>