An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
micrometeorite
  ریز-شخانه   
riz-šaxâné

Fr.: micrométéorite   

A small grain sized meteorite which can only be positively identified under the microscope.

micro-; → meteorite.

micrometer
  ریز‌سنج   
riz-sanj

Fr.: micromètre   

1) A screw thread device used to make accurate physical linear measurements.
2) Same as → micron.

micro-; → -meter.

micron
  میکرون   
mikron (#)

Fr.: micron   

A unit of length in the → metric system equal to one millionth of a → meter (10-6 m); symbol μm. Also called → micrometer. The average thickness of a human hair is about 50 μm (30-100 μm). The human eye cannot see anything smaller than 40 μm in size. Other small sizes: white blood cells = 15 μm; red blood cells = 8 μm; bacteria 2 μm.

Coined 1880 in Fr. from Gk. mikron, neutral of mikros "small."

microorganism
  ریزسازواره   
riz-sâzvâré

Fr.: microorganisme   

Any organism too small to be seen by the naked eye, e.g. bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.

micro-; → organism.

microprocessor
  ریز‌آما   
riz-âmâ

Fr.: microprocesseur   

Controlling unit of a microcomputer; laid out on a tiny silicon chip and containing the logical elements for handling data, performing calculations, carrying out stored instructions, etc.

micro-; → processor.

microquasar
  ریز-کو‌آسار   
riz-kuâsâr

Fr.: micro-quasar   

A → binary system where an ordinary star orbits around a → neutron star or a → stellar-mass black hole that accretes the outer layers of the star's atmosphere. The accreted material falling on the → compact object warms up drastically and emits huge amounts of energy as → X-rays. The → accretion disk that emits this radiation also produces → relativistic jets of → plasma along the rotation axis of the compact object. The jets of material exhibit superluminal motion and resemble those emitted from → quasars, but on scales millions of times smaller. The first microquasar, 1E1740.7-2942, was discovered by F. Mirabel et al. 1992, Nature, 358, 215.

micro- + → quasar.

microscope
  ریزبین، میکروسکوپ   
rizbin (#), mikroskop (#)

Fr.: microscope   

A magnifying optical instrument for inspecting objects too small to be seen or too small to be seen distinctly and in detail by the unaided eye.

From Mod.L. microscopium "an instrument for viewing what is small," from Gk. → micro- + -skopion "means of viewing," from skopein "look at."

Rizbin, from rizmicro- + bin "to see; seer" (present stem of didan; Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see").

microscopic
  ریزبینیک   
rizbinik

Fr.: microscopique   

Being or characterized as exceedingly small; not large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Compare → macroscopic. → macroscopic state.

microscope; → -ic.

microscopic state
  ریز-استات، ریز-حالت   
riz-estât, riz-hâlat

Fr.: état microscopique   

Same as → microstate.

microscopic; → state.

Microscopium
  میکروسکوپ   
mikroskop (#)

Fr.: Microscope   

The Microscope. A minor constellation in autumn southern sky lying just south of → Capricornus at 21h right ascension, 37° south declination. The constellation contains only 4th magnitude or fainter stars. Abbreviation: Mic; genitive: Microscopii.

Microscopium was named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762); → microscope.

microstate
  ریز-استات، ریز-حالت   
riz-estât, riz-hâlat

Fr.: micro-état   

Statistical physics: For a system made up of a large number of components, a state of the system which is specified by describing the current dynamical variables of each constituting component. For example, for a gas system composed of a large number of molecules, the microstate is defined by the set of quantities which defines the state of each molecule in the system (position, velocity, vibration, etc.). In practice, it is impossible to know perfectly the microstate of a system. The aim of → statistical physics is to relate the macroscopic (average ) observables (→ pressure, → temperature, → internal energy) to the microstate of the system. Also called → microscopic state. See also → macrostate and → multiplicity.

micro-; → state.

microturbulence
  ریز‌آشوبناکی   
riz-âšubnâki

Fr.: microturbulence   

The → turbulence phenomenon involving relatively smaller physical volumes compared to → macroturbulence. In stellar atmospheres, it is a bulk gas motion with a characteristic size less than the local photon → mean free path. Microturbulence is one of the most significant mechanisms that can cause → line broadening in the stellar spectrum. The presence of microturbulence de-saturates strong lines and increases their → equivalent widths. Microturbulence in → hot stars brings about gas motions with velocities 0-20 km s-1. A physical connection may exist between microturbulence in hot star atmospheres and a subsurface → iron convection zone. Microturbulence may also be at the origin of → wind clumping in hot stars.

micro-; → turbulence.

microwave
  ریزموج   
rizmowj (#)

Fr.: micro-onde   

Electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the 1 to 300 mm range.

micro-; → wave.

microwave background radiation
  تابش ِ پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ ریزموج   
tâbeš-e paszamine-ye rizmowj

Fr.: rayonnement micro-onde du fond cosmique   

Thermal radiation with a temperature of 2.73 K that is apparently uniformly distributed in the Universe. It is believed to be a redshifted remnant of the hot radiation that was in thermal equilibrium with matter during the first hundred thousand years after the Big Bang. Same as → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

microwave; → background; → radiation.

microwave oven
  ریز‌موج‌پز   
rizmowjpaz

Fr.: four micro-onde   

A type of electrically operated oven that cooks food very quickly using microwaves instead of heat.

microwave; → oven.

microwave radiation
  تابش ِ ریزموج   
tâbeš-e rizmowj (#)

Fr.: rayonnement micro-onde   

Electromagnetic radiation carried by → microwaves.

microwave; → radiation.

mid-
     
miyâni-; nim-, nimé (#)

Fr.: mi-; moyen   

A prefix which means being at or near the middle point of; being or occupying a middle place or position.

M.E., from O.E. midd-, cognate with O.H.G. mitti, O.N. mithr, Gothic midjis, O.Ir. mide, L. medius, Gk. mesos, Skt. mádhya-, Av. maidiia- "middle, the middle," Pers. miyân, as below.

Miyâni, from miyân "within, between, center," from Mid.Pers. mayân "middle; among, between," Av. maidiia- "middle, the middle," maiδiiāna- "middle, center," maδəma- [adj.] "middle, being in the middle; middling, of a middling size or quality," maiδim "in the midst of," cf. Skt. mádhya- "middle, located in the middle;" O.H.G. mitti "located in the middle."
nim-, nimé, → half.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  روک ِ میان-اتلسی   
ruk-e miyân Atlasi

Fr.: dorsale médio-atlantique   

An immense chain of underwater mountains that runs down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The MAR, approximately 500-1000 km wide, extends 16,000 km from Iceland to the Antarctic Circle. The MAR is so high that it actually rises above sea level in many places, forming volcanic islands. The Azores, Ascension, St. Helena, and Iceland all arise from this great Atlantic range. The chain results from the movement of the continental plates. As these plates slowly separate, they leave gaps in the → Earth's crust. This allows molten rock from beneath the Earth's crust to reach the surface and forms a ridge. The MAR is a part of the global → mid-ocean ridge system.

mid-; → Atlantic; → ridge.

mid-infrared
  فروسرخ ِ میانی   
forusorx-e miyâni (#)

Fr.: infrarouge moyen   

The portion of the → electromagnetic radiation lying between the → near-infrared and the → far-infrared. This covers the wavelength range approximately from 8 to 30 → microns. See also: → infrared radiation, → submillimeter radiation.

mid-; → infrared.

mid-ocean ridge
  روک ِ میان-اقیانوسی   
ruk-e miyân-oqyânusi

Fr.: dorsale médio-océanique   

Any of submarine mountain ranges that stretch around the world through the Atlantic Ocean and across the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Such ridges generally stand about 1000 m to 3000 m above the adjacent ocean floor and are about 500-1000 km in width.

mid-; → ocean; → ridge.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>