An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Goldbach's conjecture
  هاشن ِ گلدباخ   
hâšan-e Goldbach

Fr.: conjecture de Goldbach   

Every number greater than 2 is the sum of two → prime numbers. Goldbach's number remains one of the most famous unsolved mathematical problems of today.

Named after the German mathematician Christian Goldbach (1690-1764); → conjecture.

golden number
  عدد ِ زرّین   
adad-e zarrin (#)

Fr.: nombre d'or   

1) The number giving the position of any year in the lunar or → Metonic cycle of about 19 years. Each year has a golden number between 1 and 19. It is found by adding 1 to the given year and dividing by 19; the remainder in the division is the golden number. If there is no remainder the golden number is 19 (e.g., the golden number of 2007 is 13).
2) Same as → golden ratio.

Golden, adj. of → gold; → number.

golden ratio
  وابر ِ زرین   
vâbar-e zarrin

Fr.: nombre d'or   

If a line segment is divided into a larger subsegment (a) and a smaller subsegment (b), when the larger subsegment is related to the smaller exactly as the whole segment is related to the larger segment, i.e. a/b = (a + b)/a. The golden ratio, a/b is usually represented by the Greek letter φ. It is also known as the divine ratio, the golden mean, the → golden number, and the golden section. Its numerical value, given by the positive solution of the equation φ2 - φ - 1 = 0, is approximately 1.618033989. The golden ratio is closely related to the → Fibonacci sequence.

golden; → ratio.

Goldschmidt classification
  رده‌بندی ِ گولدسمیت   
radebandi-ye Goldschmidt

Fr.: classification de Goldschmidt   

A → geochemical classification scheme in which → chemical elements on the → periodic table are divided into groups based on their → affinity to form various types of compounds: → lithophile, → chalcophile, → siderophile, and → atmophile. The classification takes into account the positions of the elements in the periodic table, the types of electronic structures of atoms and ions, the specifics of the appearance of an affinity for a particular → anion, and the position of a particular element on the → atomic volume curve.

Developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947); → classification.

gossamer ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ تنته   
halqe-ye tanté

Fr.: anneau ténu   

An extremely faint and broad ring (in fact two rings) of tiny particles around → Jupiter lying just outside the main ring.

Gossamer "a film of cobwebs floating in air in calm clear weather; an extremely delicate variety of gauze, used esp. for veils," from M.E. gossomer, from gos "goose" + somer "summer." Possibly first used as name for late, mild autumn, a time when goose was a favorite dish, then transferred to the cobwebs frequent at that time of year; → ring.

Halqé, → ring; tanté "cobweb, spider's web," from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string."

gossip
  ۱) گتره؛ ۲) گتریدن   
1) gotré; 2) gotridan

Fr.: 1) commérages, ragots; 2) faire des commérages, bavarder   

1) Talk about other people's private or personal matters often including remarks that are unkind or untrue.
2) Engage in gossip.

From M.E. gossib, godsib "a close friend or relation, a confidant," from O.E. godsibb, "godfather, godmother," literally "a person related to one in God," from god "→ God" + sibb "a relative," → sibling. In M.E. the sense was "a close friend with whom one gossips," hence "a person who gossips," later "idle talk."

Gotré, from Shirâzi gotré "idle talk, nonesence," cf. (Qatrân, Damâvand) gotâré "loquacious," related to goftan "to say, tell," → promise.

Gould's Belt
  کمربند ِ گولد   
kamarband-e Gould (#)

Fr.: ceinture de Gould   

A band of hot, young stars (O and B types) and molecular clouds that stretches around the sky. It is tilted by about 20 degrees with respect to the Galactic plane, and has a diameter of about 3000 light-years.

Named after the American astronomer Benjamin A. Gould (1824-1896), who discovered it in 1879 by studying the distribution of the nearest luminous stars in space; → belt.

govern
  فرشاییدن   
faršâyidan

Fr.: gouverner   

General: To rule over, to exercise authority.
Science: To serve as or constitute a law for, e.g. physical laws governing star formation, the Universe, and so on.
To regulate the speed of (an engine) with a governor.

From O.Fr. governer "to govern," from L. gubernare "to direct, rule, guide," originally "to steer," from Gk. kybernan "to steer or pilot a ship" (the root of cybernetics).

Faršâyidan, from Av. fraxšā(y)- "to establish authority, to deploy lordship," from fra- "forward, forth" (Av. pouruua- "first"; cf. Skt. pūrva- "first," pra- "before, formerly," Gk. pro; L. pro; O.E. fyrst "foremost," superlative of fore, from P.Gmc. *furisto; E. fore) + xšā(y)- "to rule, have power," xšayati "has power, rules," xšāyô "power;" O.Pers. xša- "to rule," pati-xša- "to have lordship over," Xšyāršan- "hero among kings" or "ruling over heroes" the proper name of the Achaemenid emperor Hellenized as Xerxes, upari.xšay- "to rule over," xšāyaθiya- "king;" Mid.Pers. šâh "king," pâdixšâ(y) "ruler; powerful; authoritative;" Mod.Pers. šâh "king," pâdšâh "protecting lord, emperor, monarch, king," šâyestan "to be worth, suit, fit;" cf. Skt. ksā- "to rule, have power," ksáyati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property;" PIE base *tkeh- "to own, obtain."

governance
  فرشایش   
faršâyeš

Fr.: gouvernance   

The way that a city, company, etc., is controlled by the people who run it (Merriam-Webster.com).

govern; → -ance.

government
  فرشامان   
faršâmân

Fr.: gouvernement   

1) The act or process of governing; specifically: authoritative direction or control.
2) The organization, machinery, or agency through which a political unit exercises authority and performs functions and which is usually classified according to the distribution of power within it.
3) The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out (Merriam-Webster.com).

govern; → -ment.

governor
  فرشاگر   
faršâgar

Fr.: régulateur   

A regulating device for maintaining uniform speed regardless of changes of load, as by controlling the supply of gas, steam, fuel, etc.

Agent noun from → govern; → -or.

graben
  فروزمین   
foruzamin (#)

Fr.: graben   

A block of the Earth's crust, bounded by two normal faults, that has dropped downward in relation to adjacent portions.

Graben, from Ger. Graben "ditch, trench;" O.H.G. graban "ditch," grab "grave, tomb;" Goth. graban "ditch;" P.Gmc. *graban; cf. O.E. græf "grave, ditch;" E. a grave; PIE base *ghrebh-/*ghrobh- "to dig, to scratch, to scrape."

Foruzamin, from foru- + zamin. The first component foru- "down, downward; below; beneath;" Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain." The second component zamin, variant zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."

grade
  ۱) پداک؛ ۲) پداکیدن   
1) padâk; 2) padâkidan

Fr.: 1) grade, échelon; 2) classer, noter, graduer   

1) A degree or step in a scale, as of rank, advancement, quality, value, or intensity.
2) To arrange in a series of grades; class; sort (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. grade "grade, degree," from L. gradus "step, pace, gait, walk;" figuratively "a step, stage, degree," related to gradi "to walk, step, go," and second element in congress, progress, etc.; from PIE *ghredh-; cf. Lith. gridiju "to go, wander," O.C.S. gredo "to come," O.Ir. in-greinn "he pursues."

Padâk, from Baluci padâk "step, stair, ladder" (ultimately from Proto-Ir. *padaka-), older form of Pers. pâyé "step, base," from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad-, cf. Skt. pat: Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes; PIE *pod-/*ped-.

gradient
  زینه   
ziné (#)

Fr.: gradient   

1) General: Degree of slope.
2) Physics: Change in the value of a quantity (as temperature, pressure) with change in a given variable.
3) Math.: A differential → operator (symbol → nabla, ∇) that, operating upon a function (f) of several variables, creates a → vector whose coordinates are the → partial derivatives of the function: ∇f = (∂f/∂x)i + (∂f/∂y)j + (∂f/∂z)k. The gradient of a → scalar function is a vector function.

From L. gradient-, gradiens, pr.p. of gradi "to walk, go," from grad- "walk" + -i- thematic vowel + -ent suffix of conjugation.

Ziné "ladder, steps, stair," may be related to ciné, from cidan "to place (something) above/upon (another similar thing);" cf. Lori râ-zina, Yazdi râ-cina "stairs," Nâyini orcen "stairs, ladder;" the phoneme change -c- into -z-, as in gozidan, gozin-/cidan, cin- both deriving from Proto-Ir. *cai- "to heap up, gather, collect."

gradual
  پداکوار، پای‌پایه   
padâkvâr, pâypâyé

Fr.: graduel   

Proceeding, taking place, changing by small degrees.

From M.L. gradualis, from L. gradus "step."

Padâkvâr, from padâk "grade," + -vâr a suffix which denotes "suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of, possession."
Pâypâyé "step by step," from pây, pâ "foot, step," → foot.

gradual burst
  بلک ِ پداکوار، ~ پای‌پایه   
belk-e padâkvâr, ~ pâypâyé

Fr.: sursaut graduel   

A burst that happens gradually, in contrast to a sudden burst.

gradual; → burst.

graduate
  ۱) پداک دادن، پداکیدن؛ ۲) پداک گرفتن، پداکیده شدن؛ ۳) پداک دادن، پداکیدن؛ ۴) پداکمند، پداکیده   
1) padâk dâdan, padâkidan; 2) padâk gereftan, padâkidé šodan; 3) padâk dâdan, padâkidan; 4) padâkmand, padâkidé

Fr.: 1) graduer; 2) obtenir son diplôme; 3) conférer un diplôme; 4) licencié, diplômé   

1) To divide into or mark with degrees or other divisions, as the scale of a thermometer.
2) To receive a degree or diploma on completing a course of study (often followed by from).
3) To confer a degree upon, or to grant a diploma to, at the close of a course of study, as in a university, college, or school.
4) A person who has received a degree or diploma on completing a course of study, as in a university, college, or school (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.L. graduatus, p.pa. of graduari "to take a degree," from L. gradus "step, → grade."

1, 3) Padâk dâdan, compound infinitive, padâkidan simple infinitive, both from padâk, → grade, + dâdan "to give, grant," → datum, and -idan, → -fy.
2) Padâk gereftan, from padâk + gereftan "→ take, hold."
4) Padâkmand, from padâk + -mand suffix of possession and ability, → -al; padâkidé, p.p. of padâkidan, as above.

graduation
  پداکش، پداک‌دهی، پداک‌گیری   
padâkeš, padâk dehi, padâk giri

Fr.: graduation   

1) Marking the scale of an instrument, e.g. the stem of a thermometer is graduated in degrees.
2) An act of graduating; the state of being graduated.

Verbal noun of → graduate.

grain
  دانه   
dâné (#)

Fr.: grain   

1) A small, hard seed of plants, especially the seed of cereals.
2) A tiny portion or particle of something such as sand or salt; → dust grain.

M.E. grain, grein, from O.Fr. grein, from L. granum "seed;" akin to corn.

Dâné "grain, seed;" Mid.Pers. dân, dânag "seed, corn;" Av. dānô- in dānô.karš- "carrying grains; an ant;" cf. Skt. dhânâ- "corn, grain;" Tokharian B tāno "grain;" Lith. duona "corn, bread."

grain coagulation
  ماسش ِ دانه   
mâseš-e dâné

Fr.: coagulation des grains   

Sticking together of micron- to centimetre-sized grains occurring in the interstellar and protoplanetary environments to form larger grain agglomerates.

grain; → coagulation.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>