An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Antennae galaxies
  کهکشان‌ها‌ی ِ شاخکی   
kahkešânhâ-ye šâxak

Fr.: galaxies des Antennes   

The pair of colliding galaxies NGC4038 and NGC4039 and the long arcing insect-like "antennae" of luminous matter revealed by optical telescopes. The "antennae" are believed to have been produced by the collision between the galaxies that began about 100 million years ago and is still occurring. The Antennae Galaxies, about 60 million → light-years from Earth, lie in the constellation → Corvus.

Antennae, plural of → antenna; → galaxy.

Kahkešânhâ, plural of kahkešângalaxy; šâxak "insect antenna," from šâx "horn" (Mid.Pers šâk, cf. Skt. sakha- "a branch, a limb," Arm. cax, Lit. šaka, O.S. soxa, PIE *kakhâ "branch") + -ak suffix denoting relation, affinity, similarity (as in dastak, pos(tak, pas(mak, xarak, nâxonak, mus(ak, eynak);

anthropic principle
  پروز ِ انسان-هستی   
parvaz-e ensân-hasti

Fr.: principe anthropique   

The idea that the existence of → life and, in particular, our presence as → intelligent  → observers, → constrains the nature of the → Universe. It is an attempt to explain the observed fact that the → fundamental constants of nature are just right or fine-tuned to allow the Universe and life to exist. This is not however a "principle." See also → weak anthropic principle, → strong anthropic principle. Compare → Copernican principle.

Anthropic, from Gk. anthropikos "human," from anthropos "human being, man," → anthropo-; → principle.

Parvaz, → principle; ensân-hasti, from ensân, → anthropo-, + Mod.Pers. hasti "existence, being," Mid.Pers. astih, O.Pers. astiy; Av. asti "is," O.Pers./Av. root ah- "to be;" cf. Skt. as-; Gk. esti; L. est; PIE *es-.

anthropo-
  انسان-   
ensân- (#)

Fr.: anthropo-   

A prefix with the meaning of "pertaining to man or human beings." Before a vowel, anthrop-. See also → man, → human. → anthropic principle.

Frpm Gk. anthropos "man, human being," from aner "man" (as opposed to a woman, a god, or a boy), from PIE *hner "man;" cf. Pers. nar "male," Skt. nara-, Welsh ner "man."

Ensân-, from ensân "mankind," loan from Ar. insân.

anti-, ant-
  پاد-   
pâd- (#)

Fr.: anti-, ant-   

Prefix meaning "against, opposite of;" e.g. in → anticenter; → anticorrelation; → anticyclone; → antiparticle.

L. anti- from Gk. anti "against, opposite, instead of," from PIE *anti "against".

Pâd- "agaist, contrary to," from Mid.Pers. pât- "to, at, for, in," from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; cf. Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti.

antibaryon
  پادباریون   
pâdbâriyon

Fr.: antibaryon   

The → antiparticle of a → baryon.

anti-; → baryon.

anticenter
  پادمرکز   
pâdmarkaz

Fr.: anticentre   

The point in the → Galactic plane that lies directly opposite the → Galactic center. It lies in → Auriga at approximately R.A. 5h 46m, Dec. +28° 56'; the nearest bright star to it is → Alnath in → Taurus.

Anticenter, from → anti- + → center.

Pâdmarkaz, from pâd-, → anti-, + markaz, → center.

anticorona
  پاد‌افسر، شکوه   
pâdafsar, šokuh

Fr.: gloire   

Meteorology: Small, faintly colored rings of light surrounding the → antisolar point, seen when looking down at a water cloud. Same as glory.

Anticorona, from → anti- + → corona.

Pâdafsar, from pâd-, → anti- + afsar "corona."
Šokuh "glory."

anticorrelation
  پادهم‌باز‌آنش   
pâdhambâzâneš

Fr.: anticorrelation   

Statistics: The correlation coefficient of two random variables X and Y is in general defined as the ratio of the Cov(X,Y) to the two standard deviations of X and Y. It varies between 1 and -1 corresponding to complete correlation or anticorrelation.

Anticorrelation, from → anti- + → correlation.

Pâdhambâzâneš, from pâd-, → anti-, + hambâzâneš, → correlation.

anticrepuscular rays
  پرتوهای ِ پاد نیمتابی   
partowhâ-ye pâdnimtâbi

Fr.: rayons anticrépusculaires   

Rays of → sunlight that appear to converge at the → antisolar point. Like → crepuscular rays, they are parallel beams of sunlight from holes in the clouds, and their apparently odd directions are a perspective effect.

anti-; → crepuscular rays.

anticyclone
  پادچرخند   
pâdcarxand

Fr.: anticyclone   

Meteo.: A weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric high pressure. In the Northern Hemisphere an anticyclone rotates in the clockwise direction. The rotation is caused by the movement of colder higher pressure air that is moving away from the poles toward the equator being affected by the rotation of the Earth.

anti-; → cyclone.

anticyclonic
  پادچرخندی   
pâdcarxandi

Fr.: anticyclonique   

Having a sense of rotation about the local vertical opposite to that of the Earth's rotation. In other words, → clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, → counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere, and undefined at the equator. The opposite of → cyclonic (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

anticyclone; → -ic.

antiderivative
  کریای ِ نخستین   
karyâ-ye naxostin

Fr.: primitive   

The function F(x) is called the antiderivative of the function f(x) on the interval [a,b] if at all points of this interval F'(x) = f(x). Same as primitive.

anti- + → derivative.

Karyâ, → function; noxostin "primitive," → first.

antiferromagnetism
  پاد‌آهن‌مغنات‌مندی   
pâd-âhanmeqnâtmandi

Fr.: antiferromagnétisme   

A property possessed by some → metals, → alloys, and salts of transition elements in which there is a lack of → magnetic moment due to the antiparallel or spiral arrangement of atomic → magnetic moments.

anti- + → ferromagnetism.

antihydrogen
  پادهیدروژن   
pâdhidrožen

Fr.: antihydrogène   

An atom made from an → antiproton and a → positron. In 2010 a research collaboration at CERN combined decelerated antiprotons with positrons to produce antihydrogen atoms. They managed 38 times to confine single antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic trap for more than 170 milliseconds (Andersen et al. 2010, Nature, 17 Nov.).

anti- + → hydrogen.

Antikythera mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ آنتیکوترا   
sâzokâr-e Antikythera

Fr.: machine d'Anticythère   

A unique Greek geared device, constructed around the end of the second century BC to display the movement of the Sun, the Moon, and possibly the planets around the Earth, and predict the dates of future eclipses. It measures about 32 by 16 by 10 cm and contains at least 30 interlocking gear-wheels, all of them having triangular teeth, from 15 to 223 in number. This device is one of the most stunning artefacts remained from antiquity, revealing an unexpected degree of technical creativity for the period. Nothing close to its technological sophistication appears again for well over a millennium, when astronomical clocks appear in the medieval Europe. It was discovered in 1901 in a sunken ship just off the coast of Antikythera, an island between Crete and the Greek mainland. Its significance and complexity were not understood until decades later. After lots of study involving several research fields, a copy of the device has recently been constructed. See, e.g., Freeth et al. 2006, Nature 444, 587.

Named after the Greek island in the Ionia Sea from which the fragments of the device were discovered in 1901 by sponge divers, who found a sunken Roman ship. Several pieces of evidence indicate that the Roman ship carrying the device wrecked sometime shortly after 85 BC. The ship also contained an enormous booty of bronzes, glassware, jewelry and pottery; → mechanism.

antimatter
  پادماده   
pâdmâddé (#)

Fr.: antimatière   

Matter composed entirely of → antiparticles. See also → antihydrogen.

Antimatter from Gk. → anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → matter.

Pâdmâddé from pâd-, → anti-, + mâddé, → matter.

antimony
  آنتیمو‌آن   
ântimuân (#)

Fr.: antimoine   

A silver white metallic element of a flaky nature, extremely brittle, occurring in nature free or combined, symbol Sb. → Atomic number 51; → atomic weight 121.75; → meting point 630.74°C; → boiling point 1,750°C; → specific gravity (metallic form) 6.69 at 20°C. Antimony is recognized in compounds from antiquity, and as a metal since the 17th century. The minerals stibnite (Sb2S3) and stibine (SbH3) are two of a multitude of mineral species which were known in the ancient world. Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. It greatly increases the hardness of metals with which it makes → alloys. Its various unstable isotopes have a half-life of 16 min (Sb120) to 2.7 years (Sb125).

From M.E. antimonie, from M.L. antimonium, an alchemist's term, of obscure origin, maybe a Latinization of Gk. stimmi or stibi, probably ultimately from Egyptian stm "cosmetic powder" used to paint the eyelids. The chemical symbol, Sb, comes from the original name, stibium, which is derived from Gk. stibi for "mark," since it was used for blackening eyebrows and eyelashes. The name was changed from stibium to antimonium to antimony.

Ântimuân, loan from Fr. antimoine.

antineutrino
  پادنوترینو   
pâdnotrino

Fr.: antineutrino   

The → antiparticle counterpart of the → neutrino.

anti-; → neutrino.

antineutron
  پادنوترون   
pâdnotron

Fr.: antineutron   

The → antiparticle of the → neutron. It has the same mass, → spin, and → electric charge (zero) as the neutron but has opposite → baryon number (+1 for neutron, -1 for the antineutron). This is because the antineutron is composed of → antiquarks, while neutrons are composed of → quarks. The antineutron consists of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks.

anti-; → neutron.

antinode
  پاد-گره، شکم   
pâdgereh (#), šekam (#)

Fr.: anti-nœud   

The position of maximum → amplitude midway between two adjacent → nodes in a → standing wave.

anti-; → node.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>