An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
pejoration
  پستارش   
pastâeš

Fr.: péjoration   

1) Depreciation; a lessening in worth, quality, etc.
2) Semantic change in a word to a lower, less approved, or less respectable meaning.

Verbal noun of → pejorate.

pejorative
  پستار، پستارنده   
pastâr, pastaarandé

Fr.: péjoratif   

1) Having negative connotations; tending to disparage or belittle.
2) A pejorative word, expression, etc.

From Fr. péjoratif, from L.L. peiorat-, p.p. stem of peiorare "make worse," from L. peior "worse," related to pessimus "worst," pessum "downward, to the ground," from PIE *ped-yos-, comparative of root *ped- "to walk, stumble, impair," → foot.

Pastârandé agent noun from pastârdan, → pejorate.

Pelican Nebula
  میغ ِ پلیکان   
miq-e pelikân

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Pélican   

An → H II region, also known as IC 5067 and IC 5070, about 2,000 → light-years away in the constellation → Cygnus. It is part of a much larger, complex star-forming region also containing the larger and bright → North America Nebula.

So named because of its resemblance to a pelican on long exposure images. M.E. pellican; O.E. pellicane, from L.L. pelecanus, from Gk. pelekan "pelican:" → nebula.

Peltier effect
  اسکر ِ پلتیه   
oskar-e Peltier

Fr.: effet Peletier   

When an electric current is sent through the junction between two different conductors or semiconductors, a quantity of heat is liberated or absorbed, depending on the direction of the current. The heat is proportional to the total electric charge crossing the junction. This effect is due to the existence of an electromotive force at the junction.

Named after Jean-Charles Peltier (1785-1845), French physicist and watchmaker, who discovered the effect in 1834; → effect.

pencil
  ۱) مداد، کلک؛ ۲) باریکه   
1) medâd, kelk; 2) bâriké

Fr.: 1) crayon; 2) pinceau   

1a) A slender tube of wood, metal, plastic, etc., containing a core or strip of graphite, a solid coloring material, or the like, used for writing or drawing.
1b) Anything shaped or used like a pencil.
2) A narrow set of lines, light rays, or the like, diverging from or converging to a point (Dictionary.com). → pencil of light.

M.E. pencel, from M.Fr. pincel, from L. penicillus "painter's brush or pencil," diminutive of peniculus "little tail," diminutive of penis "tail;" → light.

Medâd "pencil," of unknown origin.
Kelk "quill, pen," originally "hollow reed."
Bâriké, from bârik, → narrow, + nuance suffix ; nur, → light.

pencil beam
  تابه‌ی ِ باریک   
tâbe-ye bârik

Fr.: faisceau étroit   

A beam of radiant energy in the form of a narrow cone or cylinder.

pencil; → beam.

Pencil Nebula (NGC 2736)
  میغ ِ کلک   
miq-e kelk

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Crayon   

A small part of the → Vela supernova remnant with a narrow appearance. The Pencil Nebula measures about 0.75 → light-years across, is about 5 light-years long, and lies about 800 light-years from Earth. It is moving through the → interstellar medium at about 650 000 kilometres per hour.

pencil; → nebula.

pencil of light
  باریکه‌ی ِ نور   
bârike-ye nur (#)

Fr.: pinceau lumineux   

A small bundle of → rays of light. See also → beam of light.

M.E. pencel, from M.Fr. pincel, from L. penicillus "painter's brush or pencil," diminutive of peniculus "little tail," diminutive of penis "tail;" → light.

Bâriké, from bârik, → narrow, + nuance suffix ; nur, → light.

pendulum
  آونگ   
âvang (#)

Fr.: pendule   

In its simple form, a device consisting of a body suspended from a fixed point on the end of a string to move to and fro by the action of gravity and acquired momentum. The period of oscillation for small amplitudes of swing is determined by the formula T = 2π √(l/g).

From Mod.L. pendulum, noun use of neuter of L. pendulus "hanging down," from pendere "to hang."

&ACIRC;vang, related to âvixtan, âviz- "to hang" (akin to bixtan, biz- "to shake, to sort out, to sift"); Mid.Pers. âwixtan "to hang" (Sogdian wyc "to move, shake;" Chorasmian wc- "to tremble, shake;" Ossetic wigyn "to shake," awynzyn "to hang"), from prefixed (â-) Proto-Iranian base *uij-, *uic- "to shake, swing;" cf. Av. vij- "to shake, swing," vaējant- "swinging;" cf. Skt. vej- "to tremble, wince."

pendulum day
  روز ِ آونگی   
ruz-e âvangi

Fr.: jour pendulaire   

The time required for the plane of a freely suspended → Foucault pendulum to complete an apparent rotation about the local vertical. It is given by T = 23.9344 / sin φ in hours, where φ represents the latitude of the place. For Paris it is 31h 47m 38s; for the poles it 23.9344 h and for the equator it is ∞ since the plane of pendulum does not turn.

pendulum; → day.

Penrose process
  فراروند ِ پنروز   
farâravand-e Penrose

Fr.: processus de Penrose   

A hypothetical means of extracting energy from a rotating black hole. If a particle spirals into the ergosphere of a black hole in a direction counter to the rotation of the black hole, and if the particle then breaks up into two fragments inside the ergosphere, one of the fragments can escape with energy greater than the energy of the original particle.

Named after Roger Penrose, English physicist (1931-), who devised the process; → process.

Penrose theorem
  فربین ِ پنروز   
farbin-e Penrose

Fr.: théorème de Penrose   

A collapsing object whose radius is less than its Schwarzschild radius must collapse into a singularity.

Penrose process; → theorem.

Penrose-Carter diagram
  نمودار ِ پنروز-کارتر   
nemudâr-e Penrose-Carter (#)

Fr.: diagramme de Penrose-Carter   

A diagram involving → formal compactification of → space-time used in → general relativity to describe the causal properties of the space-time. Only two of the space dimensions are shown and horizontal lines represent space, while vertical lines belong to time. The → null geodesicss are at 45°, which facilitates the visualization of → light cones. The major feature of Penrose-Carter diagram is representing the whole space-time on a finite surface, while putting → spacelike and → timelike infinities at finite distance.

Named for Roger Penrose (1931-) and Brandon Carter (1942-) who introduced it independently; → diagram.

penta-
  پنج-   
panj- (#)

Fr.: penta-   

Prefix denoting five, fivefold (e.g. pentacyclic, pentahedron, pentahydrate).

From Gk. pent-, penta-, combining forms from pente "five;" cognate with Pers. panj, E. five, as below.

Panj, from Mid.Pers. panj, Av. panca; cf. Skt. pánca; Gk. pente; L. quinque; O.E. fif, from P.Gmc. *fimfe (O.S. fif, O.H.G. funf); from PIE base *penkwe "five."

penumbra
  نیمسایه   
nimsâyé (#)

Fr.: pénombre   

1) The portion of a shadow in which light from an extended source is partially but not completely cut off by an intervening body; the area of partial shadow surrounding the umbra.
2) The lighter part of a shadow during an eclipse. An observer standing in the penumbra of a Solar eclipse will see a partial eclipse.
3) The lighter zone surrounding the dark area (→ umbra) of a → sunspot. It consists of fine, light filaments which are approximately radial for sunspots with circular outline, but irregular for complex spots.

N.L., from L. pæne "almost" + → umbra "shadow."

Nimsâyé, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Skt. néma- "half") + sâyé, → shadow; →umbra.

penumbral
  نیمسایه‌ای   
nimsâye-yi (#)

Fr.: pénombral   

Of or relating to a → penumbra.

penumbra; → -al.

penumbral lunar eclipse
  مانگ‌گرفت ِ نیمسایه‌ای   
mânggereft-e nimsâye-yi

Fr.: éclipse de lune pénombrale   

A lunar eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes through the Earth's → penumbra, but misses the darker umbral shadow. Because the Moon is only partially dimmed, a penumbral eclipse is not impressive. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, that portion of the Moon which is closest to the umbra can appear somewhat darker than the rest of the Moon.

penumbral; → eclipse.

peony
  پیونیا   
payoniyâ

Fr.: pivoine   

Any plant of the genus Paeonia, having showy, pink, red, or white, globular flowers. Originally cultivated in the temperate regions of Asia, China, Europe, and the northwest parts of North America.

M.E., from M. Fr. peonie, pioiné, from L.L. peonia, from L. pæonia, from Gk. paionia, perhaps from Paion, physician of the gods. The plant was recognized to possess many remedial properties, and was thus given an association with the gods.

Payoniyâ, loan from Gk, as above.

Peony star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیونیا   
Setâre-ye Payoniyâ

Fr.: Etiole Pivoine   

A peony-shaped nebula around the → Wolf-Rayet star WR 102ka as shown by the → Spitzer Space Telescope image at 24 μm. The formation of this infrared bright nebula is attributed to the recent evolutionary history of WR 102ka during → LBV-type eruptions and/or its strong → stellar wind (see, e.g., A. Barniske et al. 2008, A&A 486, 971).

peony; → star.

people
  مردم   
mardom (#)

Fr.: gens, personnes, peuple, public   

1) Persons indefinitely or collectively; persons in general.
2) Human beings, as distinguished from animals or other beings (Dictionary.com).

M.E. peple, from O.Fr. peupel "people, population, crowd; mankind," from L. populus "a people, nation; a multitude, crowd," of unknown origin.

Mardom "man, human being, mankind, people;" from Mid.Pers. mardôm "human being, man, mankind, people" (from *mard-tohm "seed of man"), from mard "man, humanity" (cognate with mordan "to die"); O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>