An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
astration
  ستارش   
setâreš

Fr.: astration   

The cyclic process in which interstellar matter is incorporated into newly formed stars, where it undergoes nuclear processing, is thus enriched with heavier elements, and then returns into the interstellar medium through supernova explosion or stellar winds to be used in the formation of a newer generation of stars.

Astration, from astrate, from astr-, → astro-, + noun-forming suffix -ation.

Setâreš, from setâridan (from setâré "star" + verb-making suffix -idan) + noun-builder -eš.

astro-
  اختر-   
axtar- (#)

Fr.: astro-   

A combining form with the meaning "pertaining to stars or celestial bodies" used in the formation of compound words. Variants aster-, and astr- before a vowel. → star.

Gk. astron "star," akin to L. stella (Fr. étoile, from O.Fr. esteile, from V.L. *stela), Skt. str-, tara-, Av. star-, Mid.Pers. star, stârag, Mod.Pers. setâré, axtar, see below; cf. O.E. steorra, E. star, Du. ster, O.H.G. sterro, Ger. Stern, PIE *ster- "star."

Mod.Pers. axtar, → star, from Mid.Pers. axtar. The variants star-, estâr, estâré, setâré are obvious. Note also the following dialectal forms: (Lori, Laki) âsâra, (Tabari) essâra, (Laki) hasâra, (Shughni) xiterj, xtarag. The form axtar is less straightforward, leading some philologists to suggest different origins for setâré and axtar. According to W. Eilers (Iranica), axtar is a back-fomation from Mid.Pers. apâxtar "planet; north" produced by artificial dropping of the first component. Apart from phonological difficulties inherent in this suggestion, one must also explain how axtar meaning "planet" became a general designation for star, as for example in Mid.Pers. axtarmâr "astronomer," despite the relatively infinitesimal number of planets known in ancient times. W. Eilers' suggestion is pure theoretical construction; no factual evidence support it. On the other hand, in Pahlavi texts, e.g. Bundahishn, axtar is extensively used for "star, planet, and the signs of zodiac."

We suggest that both words star and axtar are etymologically related. This idea is based on the fact that "s" and "x" phonemes interchange in Persian and other IE languages. For example, the PIE *swesor "sister" has evolved into Av. xvanhar-, Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers. xâhar (Skt. svasar-, L. soror, Fr. soeur, Gk. eor "daughter, cousin, relative," Arm. k'oyr, O.H.G. swester, Ger. Schwester, Du. zuster, E. sister). Similarly, *saewel- "sun" has become Av. hvar- "sun," Mid.Pers. xavr, Mod.Pers. xor, while keeping its Av. h in Mod.Pers. hur "sun" (cf. Skt. svar-, surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, Goth. sauil, Lith. saule). Finally, *su- "hog, pig, swine" also has changed its "s" into both "h" and "x" in Av. and Mod.Pers. hu- and xuk respectively (Skt. sukara- "boar, hog, pig," Gk. hys, L. sus, Welsh hucc, Ger. Schwein, E. swine).

astroarchaeology
  اخترباستان‌شناسی، باستان‌اخترشناسی   
axtarbâstânšenâsi(#) , bâstânaxtaršenâsi (#)

Fr.: astroarchéologie   

Same as → archaeoastronomy, megalithic astronomy.

astrobiology
  اخترزیست‌شناسی   
axtarzistšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrobiologie   

The study of life throughout the Universe, also known as exobiology.

Astrobiology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + bio "life" + -logy "science, study."

Axtarzistšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → astro- + zistšenâsi, → biology.

astrobleme
  اخترخست   
axtarxast

Fr.: astroblème   

A geological structure on the Earth's surface from an ancient meteorite impact.

Astrobleme, from → astro- + Gk. blema "scar, wound, missile," from ballein "to throw;" PIE *gwele- "to throw".

Axtarxasts, from axtar "star," → astro- + xast "wounded; scratched," from xastan "to wound, wound by scratching," Mid.Pers. xst, xs "to injure," Av. vixad- "to crush," Proto-Iranian *xad- "to wound, hurt," Skt. khad- "to hurt."

astrochemistry
  اخترشیمی   
axtaršimi (#)

Fr.: astrochimie   

The study of the chemical interactions between the gas and dust of the interstellar medium.

Astrochemistry, from → astro- "star" + → chemistry.

Axtaršimi, from axtar, → astro-, + šimi, → chemistry.

astrodynamics
  اخترتوانیک   
axtartavânik

Fr.: astrodynamique   

The science dealing with the motion of satellites, rockets, and spacecrafts. It uses the principles of celestial mechanics.

Astrodynamics, from → astro- "star" + → dynamics.

Axtartavânik, from axtar, → astro-, + tavânik, → dynamics.

astrogeology
  اخترزمین‌شناسی   
axtarzaminšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrogéologie   

A science concerned with the geology of solid bodies in the Solar system, such as planets, satellites, asteroids, and meteorites.

Astrogeology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + → geology.

Axtarzaminšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → + zaminšenâsi, → geology.

astrograph
  اخترنگار   
axtarnegâr (#)

Fr.: astrographe   

A photographic instrument with great light gathering power which is used to photograph a large field in a single exposure.

Astrograph, from → astro- + → graph.

Axtarnegâr, from axtar, → astro-, + -negâr, → -graph.

astrolabe
  اسطرلاب   
ostorlâb (#)

Fr.: astrolabe   

An ancient instrument for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky. It had many uses, including telling time during the day or night, finding the time of sunrise and sunset and, thus, the length of the day, and locating celestial objects in the sky. It was widely used until replaced by the → sextant. The → planispheric astrolabe, which is the most common type of the instrument, is typically made up of a graduated disk hanging vertically, which is rotated so that it can be directed to the star chosen. The local time can thus be read from the face of the astrolabe, and different tables, at various latitudes, can be used. More specifically, a planispheric astrolabe is made up of the following main components: → mater, → tympanum, → rete, → alidade, → throne, → limb, → pin, → horse, → front, and → back. The astrolabe was invented by Greeks, and some historians have attributed it to Hipparchus (c190-c120 BC). Modern, sophisticated versions (such as → prismatic astrolabe and → Danjon astrolabe), are used for high precision measurements of star positions. See also → particular astrolabe, → spherical astrolabe, and → universal astrolabe.

M.E., from O.Fr. astrelabe, from M.L. astrolabium, from Gk. astrolabos (organon) "star taking (instrument)," from astron "star," → astro- + lambanein "to take."

Ostorlâb, from Ar. usturlab, from Gk. astrolabos, as above.

astrologer
  اخترگو   
axtargu (#)

Fr.: astrologue   

One who practices → astrology; one who professes to foretell events by the aspects and situation of the stars.

Agent noun from → astrology.

Axtargu, a classical term used by e.g. Jalâleddin Rumi (Mowlavi), 13th century poet, → astrology.

astrology
  اخترگویی   
axtarguyi (#)

Fr.: astrologie   

A → pseudoscience based on the belief that the apparent positions and → aspects of a small number of celestial bodies influence the course of human life and terrestrial events. Although the Sun and Moon have a gravitational influence on Earth, there is no known force that can cause celestial bodies to affect human affairs in the way claimed by → astrologers. Generally speaking, astrology is baseless and incoherent. In the astrological belief the influence of celestial bodies does not depend upon their distance from Earth, but on their positions and apparent angular separations. Outer planets can have a similar degree of influence as the inner planets. As a consequence, the billions of planets in our Galaxy and in billions of other galaxies should also influence us, and logically the effect of those planets must overwhelm any influence of the planets we see. Nevertheless astrologers do not care, and this fact makes astrological deductions absurd even in their scheme. Historically, the planets → Uranus, → Neptune, and → Pluto were not used in astrological predictions. They were added from the 18th century onward, after their discovery. Now that Pluto is disqualified as a planet, will astrologers remove it from their theories? If the answer is negative, they must logically include the numerous other similar → dwarf planets (such as → Charon, → Quaoar, → Sedna) residing in the → Kuiper belt. In brief, astrology is a superstition chiefly based on ignorance and man's need for mental contentment.

astro-; → -logy.

Axtarguyi, literally "star-telling," from axtar "star," → astro- + guyi verbal noun from goftan "to tell, speak, talk;" Mid.Pers. guftan "to say, tell, utter;" O.Pers. gaub- "to say."

astrometric binary
  درین ِ اخترسنجیک   
dorin-e axtarsanjik

Fr.: binaire astrométrique   

A binary star in which the presence of an unresolved companion is revealed by small oscillations in the movement of the visible component caused by the gravitational influence of the unseen component.

astrometry; → binary.

astrometry
  اخترسنجی   
axtarsanji

Fr.: astrométrie   

The precise measurement of the positions and motions of → astronomical objects.

Astrometry, from → astro- "star" + → -metry "measuring."

Axtarsanji, from axtar, → astro-, + -sanji "measuring."

astronaut
  فضانورد، کیهان‌نورد   
fazânavard (#), keyhânnavard (#)

Fr.: astronaute, cosmonaute   

A person trained to pilot, navigate, or otherwise participate as a crew member of a spacecraft.

Astronaut, from Gk. → astro- "star" + nautes "sailor," from naus "ship" (cognate with Mod.Pers. nâv "ship;" Av./O.Pers. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus, neus, L. navis; PIE *nāu- "ship").

Fazânavard, from Ar. fazâ "space" + navard agent noun from navardidan "to travel, walk, pass by and over."
Keyhânnavard, from keyhân "cosmos" + navard.

astronautics
  فضانوردی، کیهان‌نوردی   
fazânavardi (#), keyhânnavardi (#)

Fr.: astronautique   

The science and technology of space flight, including the building and operation of space vehicles.

astronaut.

astronomer
  اخترشناس   
axtaršenâs (#)

Fr.: astronome   

One who specializes in astronomy. → professional astronomer, → amateur astronomer.

Astronomer, from → astronomy + → -er.

Axtaršenâs has a long history in Persian; it is abundantly used by Ferdowsi (A.D. 950-1020) in his great work Šâhnâmé (Shahnameh); from axtar "star" → astro- + šenâs contraction of šenâsandé "expert, knowlegeable, skilled," from šenâxtan "to know, to recognize." → astronomy.

astronomical
  اخترشناختی، اخترشناسیک، اختری   
axtaršenâxti, axtaršenâsik, axtari (#)

Fr.: astronomique   

Of or relating to → astronomy.
In non astronomical contexts, of enormous magnitude; immense.

Astronomical, from L. astronomic(us), → astronomy + → -ic, + → -al adj. suffix.

Axtaršenâxti, from axtaršenâxt, variant of axtaršenâsi, → astronomy + -i adj. suffix.
Axtaršenâsik, from axtaršenâsi, → astronomy + re-introduced Mod.Pers. suffix -ik, → -ics.

astronomical clock
  ساعت ِ اخترشناسیک   
sâ'at-e axtaršenâsik

Fr.: horloge astronomique   

A precise pendulum clock with separate dials for seconds, minutes, and hours. It was originally used by astronomers to calculate astronomical time.

astronomical; → clock.

astronomical constant
  پایا‌ی اخترشناسیک، ~ اخترشناختی   
pâyâ-ye axtaršenâsik, ~ axtaršenâxti (#)

Fr.: constante astronomique   

A precisely measured fundamental quantity in astronomy, such as the → solar parallax, the → constant of aberration, and the → obliquity of the ecliptic.

astronomical; → constant.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>