An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
tartar
  درد   
dord (#)

Fr.: tartre   

A reddish-brown deposit consisting mainly of potassium hydrogen tartrate, which forms during the fermentation of wine. Same as → argol.

From O.Fr. tartre, from L. tartarum, from late Gk. tartaron "tartar encrusting the sides of wine casks," perhaps relating to Pers. dord (?).

Dord "lees, dregs, sediment, tartar of wine."

tartaric acid
  اسید تارتاریک   
asid târtârik (#)

Fr.: acide tartarique   

An organic acid with general chemical formula C4H6O6 that exists in four isomeric forms . The common form, d-tartaric acid, obtained from → tartar, is a white, soluble, crystalline solid. It occurs naturally in many plants, particularly in grapes, bananas, and tamarinds. It is also one of the main acids found in wine.

Tartaric, from → tartar; → acid.

task
  تش   
taš

Fr.: tâche   

1) A definite piece of work required to be done as a duty or routine job.
2) A matter of considerable labor or difficulty.
3) In computer programming, a basic unit of programming that an → operating system controls.

M.E., from M.L. tasca, metathetic variant of taxa "tax," from taxare "evaluate, estimate, handle," also "censure, charge."

Taš, created from Proto-Ir. root *taš- "to make, construct; to cut;" cf. Av. tāš- "to make, construct; to cut;" O.Pers. (ham)taxš- "to work with, effect;" Mid.Pers. tâš- "to cut, cleave; create;" Mod.Pers. taš, tišé "hatchet, axe, adze," tarâšidan "to shave;" Ossetic I. dasyn/dast "to shave;" Munji tiž-, Yidgha tiž- "to shear;" Pash. toq "to shave;" cf. Skt. taks- "to form (by cutting), to build, prepare;" Gk. tekton "carpenter."

task manager
  گنارگر ِ تش، تش-گنارگر   
gonârgar-e taš, taš-gonârgar

Fr.: gestionnaire de tâches   

A → software → utility that enables a → user to view each of the tasks currently running on the → computer, each of the → processes, and the overall performance of the computer.

task; → manager.

Taurids
  گاویان   
Gâviyân

Fr.: Taurides   

An annual → meteor shower occurring in the constellation → Taurus. There are actually two distinct Taurid meteors: the South and North Taurids. The Southern peaks around 10 October and the Northern about 12 November. The Taurid meteor shower is created by debris left behind by → Encke's comet.

Taurus; → -ids.

Taurus
  گاو   
Gâv (#)

Fr.: Taureau   

Th Bull. A large constellation of the → Zodiac, in the northern hemisphere at about 4h 20m right ascension, 16° north declination. Alpha Tauri or → Aldebaran is among the twenty brightest stars in the sky. Taurus contains several star clusters, including the → Pleiades and → Hyades. The famous → Crab nebula is situated to the west of Zeta Tauri. Abbreviation: Tau; Genitive: Tauri.

From L. taurus "bull," from PIE *tauro- "bull" (cf. Gk. tauros; O.C.S. turu "bull, steer;" Lith. tauras "aurochs;" O.Pruss. tauris "bison"), often said to be from PIE *steu-ro- "be big, be strong, be sturdy" (cf. Pers. sotur, Mid.Pers. stôr "horse, mount; large cattle;" Av. staora- "bovine animals;" O.Icelandic stjôrr; Goth. stiur "young bull;" O.E. steor; E. steer).

Gâv "bull, ox, cow;" Mid.Pers. gâw "ox, bull, cow; Taurus;" Av. gao- "cow, ox, bull;" cf. Skt. gaus; Gk. bous "ox;" L. bov-; Armenian kov; O.E. cu; E. cow; PIE base *gwou- "ox, bull, cow."

tautology
  همانگویی   
hamânguyi (#)

Fr.: tautologie   

1) Needless repetition of an idea, especially in words other than those of the immediate context, without imparting additional force or clearness, as in "lifeless dead."
2) A → proposition that is → always  → true. On a → truth table a tautology is a → sentence that is true for every possible → truth value of its constituent parts.

L.L. tautologia "representation of the same thing in other words," from Gk. tautologia, from tautologos "repeating what has been said," from tauto "the same" (contraction of to auto "the same," from to "the" + → auto + -logos "saying," related to legein "to say," → -logy.

Hamân "same" (Mid.Pers. ham "same; also; together," → com-) + ân "that."

Taylor column
  ستون ِ تیلر   
sotun-e Taylor

Fr.: colonne de Taylor   

A phenomenon in which the relative motion of a homogeneous rotating liquid tends to be the same in all planes perpendicular to the axis of rotation. When a rotating fluid comes into contact with a submerged object, the fluid flows around it as if it were a cylinder extending the entire depth of the fluid parallel to the axis of the system.

Taylor number; → column.

Taylor number
  عدد ِ تیلر   
adad-e Taylor

Fr.: nombre de Taylor   

A → dimensionless number indicating the relative importance of the → centrifugal and → viscous forces in the → Taylor-Couette flow. It is also called rotational Reynolds number. Its value depends on the length scale of the convective system, the rotation rate, and → kinematic viscosity. The Taylor number Ta is expressed by Ω2Rd32 where Ω is the → angular velocity of the inner cylinder, R = (R1 + R2)/2 is the mean radius of the two cylinders, d = R2 - R1 is the distance between the cylinders, and ν is → kinematic viscosity. If Ta is equal or greater than one, the rotational effects are significant.

Named after Geoffrey Ingram Taylor (1886-1975), a British physicist, mathematician, and expert on fluid dynamics and wave theory; → number.

Taylor series
  سری ِ تیلر   
seri-ye Taylor (#)

Fr.: série de Taylor   

A series expansion of an infinitely differentiable function about a point a: Σ (1/n!) (x - a) n f n (a), where fn(a) is the n-th derivative of f at a, and the sum over n = 0 to ∞. If a = 0 the series is called a → Maclaurin series.

Named for the English mathematician Brook Taylor (1685-1731); → series.

Taylor-Couette flow
  تچان ِ تیلر-کویءت   
tacân-e Taylor-Couette

Fr.: écoulement de Taylor-Couette   

The → Couette flow between two concentric cylinders with fluid filling the annular region. The flow is generated by the relative rotation of the two cylinders. Under some physical conditions the flow may undergo the → Taylor-Couette instability.

Taylor number; → flow.

Taylor-Couette instability
  ناپایداری ِ تیلر-کویءت   
nâpâydâri-ye Taylor-Couette

Fr.: instabilité de Taylor-Couette   

A hydrodynamic instability in the → Taylor-Couette flow that arises when the rotation velocity of the fluid exceeds a critical value. The instability arises for → Taylor numbers larger than about 1700. At the beginning the fluid elements will move in simple rolls, but turbulence in the form of complex spirals will appear with increasing rotation velocity.

Taylor-Couette flow; → instability.

Taylor-Goldstein equation
  هموگش ِ تیلر-گلدشتاین   
hamugeš-e Taylor-Goldstein

Fr.: équation de Taylor-Goldstein   

Fluid mechanics: A second order differential equation that governs the vertical structure of a perturbation in a stratified parallel flow.

Named after G. I. Taylor (Effect of variation in density on the stability of superposed streams of fluid, 1931, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 132, 499), → Taylor number, and S. Goldstein (On the stability of superposed streams of fluids of different densities, 1931, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 132, 524); → equation.

Taylor-Proudman theorem
  فربین ِ تیلر-پراؤدمن   
farbin-e Taylor-Proudman

Fr.: théorème de Taylor-Proudman   

In a rapidly rotating fluid, the fluid velocity is constant along any line parallel to the axis of rotation.

Taylor number; Joseph Proudman (1888-1975), British mathematician and oceanographer.

teach
  آموختن   
âmuxtan (#)

Fr.: enseigner   

To impart knowledge or skill to; give instruction to.

M.E. techen, O.E. tæcan; cf. O.H.G. zihan, Ger. zeihen "to accuse," Goth. ga-teihan "to announce;" cognate with Pers. dis, → form.

Âmuxtan, âmuz- "to teach; learn;" Mid.Pers. hammoxtan, hammoz- "to teach; learn;" cf. Sogd. muck "teacher;" Choresmian mxs "to learn," mwcy "to teach, instruct;" Proto-Iranian *mauc- "to learn; teach."

technetium
  تکنتیوم   
teknetium (#)

Fr.: technétium   

A radioactive chemical element which does not exist naturally on Earth; symbol Tc. Atomic number 43; mass number of most stable isotope 98; melting point 2,200°C; boiling point 4,877°C. Technetium is synthesised via the → s-process in deep layers of → asymptotic giant branch stars.

From the Gk. technetos "artificial," initially called masurium.

technique
  تشنیک، فن   
tašnik, fann

Fr.: technique   

The body of specialized procedures and methods used in any specific field, especially in an area of applied science.

From Fr. technique "formal practical details in artistic expression," noun use of adj. technique "of art, technical," from Gk. tekhnikos, from tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" cognate with Pers. tarâš- "to cut, hew; scape; shave," tišé "axe," as below.

Tašnik, related to Pers. tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" from Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš, tišé "axe;" tarâšidan "to shave"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to fom by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion."
Fann or fan, from Pers. fan "way, manner, mode, art, science," related to Mod/Mid.Pers. pand "path, advice, counsel;" Khotanese pande "road, path;" Ossetic fœndœg "path, road;" O.Pers. paθi- "path, way;" Av. paθ- "path, way," variants paθi-, paθā-, pantay-; cf. Skt. pánthā- "road, path, course;" Gk. patos "path, way," pontos "sea;" L. pons "bridge, path;" P.Gmc. *finthanan "to find;" E. find; PIE base *pent- "to go, to tread."

technology
  تشنیک‌شناسی، فناوری   
tašnik-šenâsi (#), fanâvari (#)

Fr.: technologie   

The use of scientific knowledge for the creation and development of devices, machines, and techniques to achieve a commercial, industrial, or scientific objective.

From Gk. tekhnologia "systematic treatment of an art, craft, or technique," originally referring to grammar, from tekhno-, from tekhne, → technique, + → -logy.

tectonics
  سازانیک   
sâzânik

Fr.: tectonique   

The science or art of assembling, shaping, or ornamenting materials in construction; the constructive arts in general. → plate tectonics

L.L. tectonicus, from Gk. tektonikos "pertaining to building," from tekton (genitive tektonos) "builder, carpenter," → technique.

Sâzânik, from sâzân pr.p. of sâz-, sâxtan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -ik, → -ics.

Teide 1
  تایده-۱   
Teide 1

Fr.: Teide 1   

The first genuine → brown dwarf, discovered in 1995. It is located in the → Pleiades open cluster at approximately 400 → light-years. Teide 1 is a faint object of apparent magnitude I = 19.03, with a late → M dwarf spectral type (M8), corresponding to 55±15 → Jupiter masses (Rebolo et al. 1995, Nature 377, 129).

Named for Observatorio del Teide, Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), where this object was first detected.

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