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National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Sâzmân-e Fazânavardi-ye Âmrikâ
Fr.: NASA, Administration nationale de l'aéronautique et de l'espace
A federal agency of the United States government founded in 1958 for civil aeronautical research and space exploration, superseding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Its goals include improving human understanding of the universe, the solar system, and Earth and establishing a permanent human presence in space. NASA is headquarted at Washington, D.C., and operates several research, development, and test facilities, as follows alphabetically: 1) Ames Research Center; 2) Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, used for flight testing and as a landing site for the Space Shuttle; 3) Glenn Research Center at Cleveland, Ohio, concerned with aircraft and rocket propulsion; 4) Goddard Space Flight Center; 5) Jet Propulsion Laboratory; 6) Johnson Space center; 7) Kennedy Space Center; 8) Langley Research Center at Hampton, Virginia, which carries out research in aeronautics and space technology; 9) Marshall Space Flight Center; 10) the Space Telescope Science Institute; 11) Stennis Space Center, near Bay St Louis, Mississippi, for testing rocket engines; and 12) Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Virginia, which manages NASA's sounding rocket and scientific balloon programs.
→ national; → aeronautics; → space; administration, verbal noun of administer, from M.E. amynistre, from O.Fr. aministrer, from L. administrare "to serve, carry out, manage," from → ad- "to" + ministrare "to serve," from minister "servant, priest's assistant," from minus, minor "less," hence "subordinate," + comparative suffix *-teros.
Loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially: a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups (Merriam-Webster.com).
1) National status; specifically: a legal relationship involving
allegiance on the part of an individual and usually protection on the
part of the state b : membership in a particular nation.
The transfer of a major branch of industry or commerce from private to state ownership or control (OxfordDictionaries.com)
1) To bring under the ownership or control of a nation, as industries and land (Dictionary.com).
Occurring in nature; not artificially prepared. → nature.
Adj. of → nature.
Fr.: fréquence naturelle
Any frequency of small-amplitude oscillation for a system with a position of stable equilibrium and in the absence of external forces. In other words, the frequency of → free oscillation. Also called characteristic frequency.
Fr.: histoire naturelle
The → sciences, as → botany, → mineralogy, or → zoology, dealing with the study of all objects in → nature: used especially in reference to the beginnings of these sciences in former times (Dictionary.com).
Fr.: langage naturel
natural line broadening
pahneš-e zâstâri-ye xatt
Fr.: élargissement naturel de raie
The broadening of any spectral line due to the fact that excited levels have mean lives, which, by virtue of the uncertainty principle, implies a spread in the energy values.
Fr.: logarithme naturel
The logarithm in which the → base is the → irrational number e = 2.718281828.... Also called → Napierian logarithm. The natural logarithm is denoted ln, an abbreviation of logarithmus naturalis. Natural logarithms are related to → common logarithms through: ln x = (1/M) log x, with M = (1/ln 10) ≅ 0.434294.
Fr.: nombre naturel
Either a member of the set of positive integers 1, 2, 3, ..., or the set of non-negative integers 0, 1, 2, 3, ... There seems to be no general agreement about whether to include 0 in the set of natural numbers.
Fr.: période naturelle
Of a body or system, the period of → free oscillation.
Fr.: résonance naturelle
A resonance such that the period of the driving force is the same as the natural period of the system.
Fr.: satellite naturel
Fr.: science naturelle
A science that deals with matter, energy, their interrelations and transformations, In other words, natural sciences are concerned with physical processes observable in nature. They can be divided into physical and biological sciences.
Fr.: unités naturelles
Physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical constants (e.g. the speed of light, Planck's constant, Boltzmann's constant, etc.) are equal to unity. The use of natural units allows these constants to be omitted from mathematical equations, leading to simpler calculations.
Fr.: uranium naturel
Uranium as found in nature. It contains 0.7% uranium-235, 99.3% uranium-238, and a trace of uranium-234 by weight.
Philosophy: 1) The view of the world that takes account only of natural elements
and forces, excluding the supernatural or spiritual.
The natural world as it exists without human beings or civilization.
M.E. natur(e), from O.Fr. nature from L. natura "the things at the outset, as it was when brought into existence; conditions of birth; essence, natural qualities," from natus "born," p.p. of nasci "to be born," from PIE *gen- "to give birth, beget," cognate with Pers. zâdan "to give birth," as below.
Zâstâr, literally "birth," from zâst past stem of [Dehxodâ] zâstan, variant of zâdan "to bring forth, give birth;" (Lâsgardi, Sorxeyi, Aftari) nestor "barren, sterile" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears;" L. gignere "to beget," nasci "to be born," as above, PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget") + suffix -âr (forming verbal nouns as in raftâr, kerdâr, goftâr, didâr, jostâr, and so on; or forming accusative nouns, as in gereftâr, koštâr, etc.).