An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
NGC 3603
     
NGC 3603

Fr.: NGC 3603   

The most massive and luminous visible → starburst region in the Galaxy. This is our local → giant H II region lying at a distance of about 6-7 kpc in the → Carina arm (→ right ascension = 11h, → declination = -61°). Its central starburst cluster hosts the largest known concentration of extremely young, mostly unevolved → high-mass stars in the Galaxy. With an age of only 1-2 Myr for its most massive stars, NGC 3603 is one of the youngest starburst clusters known. It has about 40 known → O stars and → W-R stars, producing a → Lyman continuum flux of 1051 s-1, about 100 times the ionizing power of the Orion → Trapezium cluster. The OB stars contribute to more than 2000 → solar masses to the cluster mass. With a bolometric luminosity over 107solar luminosities, NGC 3603 has about 10% of the luminosity of → 30 Doradus and looks in many respects very similar to its core, → R136. A total mass of 7,000 solar masses is measured in the inner 1 pc from the cluster center, whereas the → low-mass stars extend out to at least 5 pc. The mass segregated core of the cluster, with 105 solar masses per pc3, displays the highest local stellar density outside the Galactic Center region. The spectral analysis of the W-R like massive component in the cluster core (→ HD 97950) suggests a → metallicity close or equal to solar (See, e.g., Melena et al. 2008, AJ 135, 878, and references therein).

3603, a serial number in the → New General Catalogue.

NGC 3603-A1
     
NGC 3603-A1

Fr.: NGC 3603-A1   

A → binary star lying in the core of the Galactic → giant H II region  → NGC 3603. NGC 3603-A1 is double-eclipsing → Wolf-Rayet binary of type → WN6ha with an orbital period of 3.77 days. Their masses have been derived to be M1 = (116 ± 31) Msun for the primary and M2 = (89 ± 16) Msun for the secondary component of A1. The primary in A1 is the most massive star weighed so far (Schnurr et al., 2008, MNRAS 389, L38).

NGC 3603.

NGC 404
     
NGC 404

Fr.: NGC 404   

A galaxy discovered in 1784 by William Herschel that happens to lie nearly along the line of sight to the star → Beta Andromedae. More specifically, it lies at an angular separation of seven arc-minutes. For this reason it is known also as → Mirach's Ghost. NGC 404 is in fact a → dwarf galaxy lying at a distance of about 10 million → light-years (3.07 ± 0.37 Mpc). NGC 404 harbors a low-luminosity → active galactic nucleus powered by the lowest-mass (< 150,000 Msun) central → massive black hole (Nyland et al., 2017, ApJ 845, 50).

NGC, → New General Catalogue.

NGC 4993
     
NGC 4993

Fr.: NGC 4993   

A → lenticular galaxy (S0) in → Hydra constellation located about 130 million → light-years (40 ± 8 Mpc, → redshift z = 0.009680) from Earth, discovered by William Herschel in 1789. On 17 August 2017 the → Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the → Virgo Interferometer both detected → gravitational waves (→ GW170817) from the collision of two → neutron stars within this galaxy. The → electromagnetic counterpart GRB 170817A was detected 1.7 seconds later. The event was associated with a → kilonova offset 10.6 arcsec (corresponding to 2.0 kpc) to north-east from the nucleus of NGC 4993.

NGC, → New General Catalog

NGC 5866
     
NGC 5866

Fr.: NGC 5866   

A → lenticular galaxy in the constellation of the → Draco. It lies about 50 million → light-years (15.3 Mpc) distant and has a size of about 60,000 light-years. Due to its thin → rdge-on appearance, it is also called the → Spindle Galaxy. Known also as Messier 102.

5866, a serial number in the → New General Catalogue.

NGC 7023
     
NGC 7023

Fr.: NGC 7023   

A → reflection nebula located in the constellation → Cepheus at a distance of 1,300 → light-years. It was discovered by Sir William Herschel on October 18, 1794. The nebula, also known as the → Iris Nebula and → Caldwell 4, is about 6 light-years across. At the center of NGC 7023 lies an extremely young star named V380 Cep or SAO 19158 (mag. +7.1), which is associated with plenty of local dust. NGC 7023 is located 6 degrees northwest of the brightest star in Cepheus, Alderamin (α Cep - mag. +2.5) with third magnitude Alfirk (Beta Cephei) positioned about 3.5 degrees to the northeast. Only a degree east-northeast of NGC 7023 is Mira type variable star T Cep, which fluctuates between magnitudes +5.2 and +11.3 over a period of 388.14 days.

7023, a serial number in the → New General Catalogue.

ni- (PIE)
  ن-، نی-   
ne-, ni- (#)

Fr.:   

PIE prefix *ni- "down, below."

E. nether is from this PIE root; M.E. nethere, O.E. neothera, nithera "down, downward, below, beneath" (cf. O.S. nithar, O.N. niðr, O.Fris. nither, Du. neder, Ger. nieder); akin to Pers. ne-, ni-, as below.

Mod.Pers. ne-, ni- "down, below" (as in negâh "look, watch," nešastan "to sit down," nehoftan "to conceal," nehâdan "to place, put," nemudan "to display," nefrin "curse," etc.); Mid.Pers. ni-, O.Pers. preposition and verbal prefix ni- "down;" Av. nī- "down, in, into;" cf. Skt. ni- "down," nitaram "downward;" Gk. neiothen "from below" (from ne-[io]- "below" + -then "from, since;" other usage examples of -then: po-then "from where," paidio-then "since childhood," panta-ho-then "from everywhere."); E. nether, as above.

nickel
  نیکل   
nikel (#)

Fr.: nickel   

Metallic chemical element belonging to the iron group; symbol Ni. Atomic number 28; atomic weight 58.69; melting point about 1,453°C; boiling point about 2,732°C. It was discovered by the Swedish metallurgist Axel-Fredrik Cronstedt (1722-1765) in 1751.

Nickel, from shortening of Swedish kopparnickel "copper-colored ore," from which it was first obtained, a half-translation of Ger. Kupfernickel, literally "copper demon," from Kupfer "copper" + Nickel "demon, rascal" (from Nikolaus; cf. E. Old Nick "the devil;" the ore so called by miners because it looked like copper but yielded none.

Nicol prism
  منشور ِ نیکول   
manšur-e Nicol (#)

Fr.: prisme de Nicol   

Optical device constructed from a crystal of calcite, used for obtaining plane polarized light.

Named after John Pringle Nicol (1804-1859), British physicist; → prism.

night
  شب   
šab (#)

Fr.: nuit   

The period between → sunrise and → sunset, especially the hours of darkness.

M.E., from O.E. niht (O.H.G. naht, Du., Ger. Nacht, O.N. natt, Goth. nahts), from PIE *nok(w)t- "night;" cf. Gk. nuks; L. nox (Fr. nuit; Sp. noche); Skt. nákt-; Av. *naxtar- "night," upa.naxtar- "adjoining the night" (Kurd. Soriani nûtak (?) "sheer darkness"); Lith. naktis; Russ. noch'.

Šab, from Mid.Pers. šab, šap "night;" O.Pers. xšap- "night;" Av. xšapan-, xšafn-, xšap- "night;" cf. Skt. ksáp- "night;" PIE base *k(w)sep- "night."

night assistant
  دستیار ِ شب   
dastyâr-e šab

Fr.: assistant de nuit   

A specialized technician in an observatory who is in charge of functioning a telescope and helping visiting astronomers during their observation run.

From → night + assistant; M.E. assistent, from L. assistent-, stem of assistens, pr.p. of assistere "assist, stand by," from → ad- "to" + sistere "take a stand, cause to stand," cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," → histogram.

Dastyâr "assistant," from dast "hand" (Mid.Pers. dast; O.Pers. dasta-; Av. zasta-; cf. Skt. hásta-; Gk. kheir; L. praesto "at hand;" Arm. jern "hand;" Lith. pa-žastis "arm-pit;" PIE *ghes-to-) + yâr "helper; companion" (Mid.Pers. hayyâr "helper," hayyârêh "help, aid, assistance," Proto-Iranian *adyāva-bara-, cf. Av. aidū- "helpful, useful").

night blindness
  شبکوری   
šabkuri (#)

Fr.: nyctalopie   

An eye disease which is the difficulty in seeing at night or in dim light. Opposite of → hemeralopia. Also called → nyctalopia.

night; → blindness.

nightglow
  شب‌فروز، شب‌فروغ   
šabforuz, šabforuq

Fr.: luminescence nocturne   

Same as → airglow.

night; → glow.

Nihal (β Leporis)
  نهال   
nehâl (#)

Fr.: Nihal   

A yellow star of visual magnitude 2.84, the second brightest in the constellation → Lepus. It is a giant of → spectral type G5, lying some 159 light-years away. Nihal is double, with a companion, 2.5 seconds of arc apart.

From Ar. an-nihal (النهال) "the thirsty camels, drinking camels," plural form of an-nâhil (الناهل).

nine
  نه   
noh (#)

Fr.: neuf   

A → cardinal number between → eight and → ten.

M.E., from O.E. nigen, nigan, nigon, akin to M.Du. neghen, Du. negen, O.H.G. niun, Ger. neun, Goth. niun "nine," Pers. noh, as below; from PIE *newn "nine."

Noh, from Mid.Pers. ; Av. nava; cognate with Skt. nava-; Gk. ennea; L. novem.

nipple
  ممک   
mamak (#)

Fr.: mamelon   

The small conical projection in the centre of the areola of each breast, which in women contains the outlet of the milk ducts. Also called: mamilla, papilla or teat (TheFreeDictionary).

M.E. nyppell, neple, "teat," from neble, diminutive of neb "bill, beak," + -le, → -ule.

Mamak, diminutive of mame "breast" in child language, maybe related to mâm, → mother.

nitrogen
  ازت   
azot (#)

Fr.: azote   

Gaseous chemical element; symbol N. Nitrogen is the most abundant constituent of dry air. It comprises 78.09% (by volume). → Atomic number 7; → atomic weight 14.0067; → melting point -209.86°C; → boiling point -195.8°C. Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas. It was discovered by the Scottish physician and chemist Daniel Rutherford in 1772.

From Fr. nitrogène, coined 1790 by Fr. chemist Jean Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832), from combining form of Gk. nitron "sodium carbonate" + Fr. gène "producing."

Azot, loan from Fr. azote, from Gk. azotos "lifeless," from negation prefix → a- + zotos "vital."

nivology
  برفشناسی   
barfšenâsi

Fr.: nivologie   

Science of → snow.

From Fr. nivologie, from niveus "snow; snowy," → snow, + -logie, → -logy.

Barfšenâsi, frp barf, → snow, + -šenâsi, → -logy.

Nix
  نیکس   
Niks

Fr.: Nix   

The second satellite of → Pluto discovered in 2005 by astronomers using the → Hubble Space Telescope images. It has an estimated diameter of between 46 and 137 km and an orbital period of 24.9 days. Also called Pluto II (P2).

Nix, from Nyx in Gk. mythology the goddess of darkness and night. The conversion of "i" into "y" was to avoid conflict with the asteroid 3908 Nyx.

no boundary hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ گیتی بی کران ِ آغازین   
engâre-ye giti bi karân-e âqâzin

Fr.: l'hypothèse de l'Univers sans limite initiale   

The proposal whereby the → Universe would not have begun with a → singularity. Instead, the → Big Bang would be an ordinary point of → space-time. The proposal, advanced by James Hartle and Stephen Hawking (1983) results from an attempt to combine aspects of → general relativity and → quantum mechanics. Based on an imaginary time assumption, it predicts a closed Universe that would start at a single point, that can be compared to the North Pole of the Earth on a two-dimensional space. Before the → Planck era there was space, but the real time began with the Big Bang event. → Hartle-Hawking initial state.

boundary; → hypothesis.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>