An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
solar ecliptic limit
  حد ِ هورپهی ِ خورشید   
hadd-e hurpehi-ye xoršid

Fr.: limite écliptique du Soleil   

The greatest angular distance from a → lunar orbit node within which a → solar eclipse may occur when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction there. The solar ecliptic limit extends about 17° on each side of the node.

solar; → ecliptic; → limit.

solar equation
  هموگش ِ خورشیدی   
hamugeš-e xoršidi

Fr.: équation solaire   

In ancient astronomy, the difference between the Sun's mean and actual position. The ancients observed that, although the motion of the Sun in the ecliptic is almost uniform, it is subject to a small annual variation.

solar; → equation.

solar flare
  آلاو ِ خورشیدی   
âlâv-e xoršidi (#)

Fr.: éruption solaire   

A bright eruption form the Sun's → chromosphere in the vicinity of a → sunspot. Solar flares are caused by tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun. In a matter of just a few minutes they heat the material to many millions of degrees and release as much energy as a billion → megatons of → T.N.T..

solar; → flare.

solar instrument
  سازال ِ خورشیدی   
sâzâl-e xoršidi

Fr.: instrument solaire   

An instrument especially designed for solar observations.

solar; → instrument.

solar irradiance
  تابشداری ِ خورشیدی   
tâbešdâri-ye xoršidi

Fr.: irradiation solaire   

The radiative power per unit area in all wavelengths from the Sun received by the Earth at its average distance from the Sun. Its mean value is called the → solar constant. The solar irradiance changes over a year by about 6.6% due to the variation in the Earth/Sun distance. Moreover, solar activity variations cause irradiance changes of up to 1%.

solar; → irradiance.

solar limb
  لبه‌ی ِ خورشید   
labe-ye xoršid

Fr.: bord solaire   

The edge of the → disk of the → Sun.

solar; → limb.

solar longitude
  درژنای ِ خورشیدی   
derežnâ-ye xoršidi

Fr.: longitude du Soleil   

The ecliptic longitude of the Sun. It varies from 0° (at the vernal equinox) to 360° during the year. By Kepler's Second Law, the rate of change of the solar longitude is such that the Earth sweeps out equal areas on the ecliptic plane in equal times.

solar; → longitude.

solar luminosity
  تابندگی ِ خورشید   
tâbandegi-ye xoršid (#)

Fr.: luminosité solaire   

The total → radiant energy, in all wavelengths, emitted by the Sun in all directions. It is 3.828 × 1026 W or 3.828 × 1033 erg sec-1 (International Astronomical Union, Resolution B3, 14 August 2015, Honolulu, USA). This is the luminosity unit conventionally used to give the luminosities of stars. See also: → solar constant. When the Earth first formed, 4.56 billion years ago, the Sun radiated 30% less energy than it does today, thus giving rise to the so-called → faint early Sun paradox. Ever since then, its power has increased by 7% every billion years (I. Ribas, 2009, arXiv:0911.4872).

solar; → luminosity.

solar magnetic cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ مغناتیسی ِ خورشید   
carxe-ye meqnâtisi-ye xoršid

Fr.: cycle magnétique solaire   

The period of time, about 22 years, after which the magnetic → polarity of the Sun returns to its earlier state. It consists of two consecutive → solar cycles.

solar; → magnetic; → cycle.

solar magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ خورشید   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye xoršid (#)

Fr.: champ magnétique solaire   

The Sun's magnetic field which is probably created by the → differential rotation of the Sun together with the movement of charged particles in the → convective zone. Understanding how the solar magnetic field comes about is the fundamental problem of Solar Physics. The solar magnetic field is responsible for all solar magnetic phenomena, such as → sunspots, → solar flares, → coronal mass ejections, and the → solar wind. The solar magnetic fields are observed from the → Zeeman broadening of spectral lines, → polarization effects on radio emission, and from the channeling of charged particles into visible → coronal streamers. The strength of Sun's average magnetic field is 1 → gauss (twice the average field on the surface of Earth, around 0.5 gauss), and can be as strong as 4,000 Gauss in the neighborhood of a large sunspot.

solar; → magnetic; → field.

solar mass
  جرم ِ خورشید   
jerm-e xoršid (#)

Fr.: masse solaire   

The amount of mass in our Sun, 1.99 x 1033 g, about 330,000 times the Earth's mass. The solar mass is also the unit in which the masses of other stars, galaxies, and other large celestial bodies are expressed.

solar; → mass.

solar maximum
  بیشینه‌ی ِ خورشیدی   
bišine-ye xoršidi

Fr.: maximum solaire   

The month(s) during the 11 year → solar cycle when the number of → sunspots reaches a maximum.

solar; → maximum.

solar metallicity
  فلزیگی ِ خورشیدی   
felezigi-ye xoršidi

Fr.: métallicité solaire   

The proportion of the solar matter made up of → chemical elements heavier than → helium. It is denoted by Z, which represents the sum of all elements heavier than → helium, in mass fraction. The most recent determination of the solar Z gives a value of 0.0134 (Asplund et al. 2009, ARAA 47, 481), corresponding to the present-day photospheric composition.

solar; → metallicity.

solar minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ خورشیدی   
kamine-ye xoršidi

Fr.: minimum solaire   

The month(s) during the 11 year → solar cycle when the number of → sunspots is lowest.

solar; → minimum.

solar nebula
  میغ ِ خورشیدی   
miq-e xoršidi

Fr.: nébuleuse solaire   

The cloud of interstellar gas and dust from which the Sun and the rest of the solar system initially formed.

solar; → nebula.

solar neighborhood
  همسایگی ِ خورشید   
hamsâyegi-ye xoršid (#)

Fr.: voisinage solaire   

That part of the Milky Way galaxy lying near the Sun. In fact there is no definition of the exact radius of this region. It is referred to the immediate solar neighborhood (within about 5 pc), the solar neighborhood (within about 25 pc), and the extended solar neighborhood (within a few hundred pc).

solar; → neighborhood.

solar neutrino
  نوترینوی ِ خورشیدی   
notinohâ-ye xoršidi

Fr.: flux des neutrinos solaires   

A neutrino generated in the → Sun. The main source of solar neutrinos is the → proton-proton chain of reactions: 4 × p→ He + 2e+ + 2νe, in which an energy of +28 MeV is shared between the reaction products. These are called → low-energy neutrinos. There are less important reactions in the Sun yielding a smaller flux of higher energy neutrinos. The solar neutrino flux can be estimated from the → solar luminosity (L), as follows Since there are two neutrinos for each 28 MeV of energy, the neutrino flux at the Earth distance (d) is given by: ν flux = 2Lsun/(28 MeV) × (1/4πd2) = 6 × 1010 cm-2 s-1. See also the → solar neutrino problem.

solar; → neutrino; → flux.

solar neutrino problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ نوترینوهای ِ خورشید   
parâse-ye notrinohâ-ye xoršid

Fr.: problème des neutrinos solaires   

A major discrepancy between the flux of neutrinos detected at Earth from the solar core and that predicted by current models of solar nuclear fusion and our understanding of neutrinos themselves. The problem, lasting from the mid-1960s to about 2002, was a considerably lesser detected number of neutrons compared with theoretical predictions. The discrepancy has since been resolved by new understanding of neutrino physics, requiring a modification of the → standard model of particle physics, in particular → neutrino oscillation.

solar; → neutrino; → problem.

solar neutrino unit (SNU)
  یکای ِ نوترینوهای ِ خورشیدی   
yekâ-ye notrinohâ-ye xoršidi

Fr.: unité de neutrinos solaires   

A measure of the flux of neutrinos from the Sun reaching the Earth. 1 SNU is equal to 10-36 solar neutrinos captured per target atom per second.

solar; → neutrino; → unit.

Solar Orbiter
  مدارگرد ِ خورشیدی   
madârgard-e xoršidi

Fr.: orbiteur solaire   

A → European Space Agency (ESA) mission with strong → National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) participation aimed at studying the Sun up close and from high latitudes, launched on 10 February 2020. Solar Orbiter is equipped with 10 instruments and will provide the first images of the Sun's poles. It will make a close approach of the Sun every six months. Its distance from the Sun varies from within the orbit of → Mercury to close to the orbit of Earth. At closest approach, Solar Orbiter will be about approximately 42 million km from the Sun. Solar Orbiter will combine in situ measurements of the → solar wind around the spacecraft with remote sensing, looking at the Sun's features from afar, to connect the two together. The spacecraft has been tested to withstand temperatures up to 500 °C -- enduring thirteen times the amount of solar heating that satellites in Earth's orbit experience. Solar Orbiter will help us understand how our star creates and controls the → heliosphere, i.e. the giant bubble of → plasma that surrounds the whole → Solar System and influences the planets within it.

solar; → orbiter.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>