An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>

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color-color plot
  نمودار ِ رنگ-رنگ   
nemudâr-e rang-rang (#)

Fr.: diagramme couleur-couleur   

Fr.: diagramme couleur-couleur

Same as → color-color diagram.

color-luminosity diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-تابندگی   
nemudâr-e rang-tâbandegi

Fr.: diagramme couleur-luminosité   

A form of → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in which the luminosity is the vertical axis and the → color index the horizontal axis.

color; → luminosity, → diagram.

color-magnitude diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-برز   
nemudâr-e rang-borz

Fr.: diagramme couleur-magnitude   

A form of → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in which the visual absolute magnitude Mv is the vertical axis and the → color index the horizontal axis.

color; → magnitude, → diagram.

colorimetry
  رنگ سنجی   
rangsanji (#)

Fr.: colorimétrie   

The measurement and definition of unknown colors in terms of standard colors.

color; → -metry.

Columba
  کبوتر   
Kabutar (#)

Fr.: Colombe   

The Dove. A small → constellation in the Southern Hemisphere just south to → Canis Major and → Lepus. Abbreviation: Col; genitive: Columbae.

L. columba "dove."

Kabutar "pigeon," Mid.Pers. kabôtar, from kabôd "grey-blue; pigeon," cf. Skt. kapota- "a dove, pigeon; the grey color of a pigeon."

column
  ستون   
sotun (#)

Fr.: colonne   

CCD detector: Series of pixels arranged under one another.

Column, from O.Fr. columpne, from L. columna "pillar," collateral form of columen "top, summit," from PIE *kel- "to project."

Sotun, from Mid.Pers. stun, from O.Pers. stênâ "column," Av. stuna-, Skt. sthuna- "column."

column density
  چگالی ِ ستون   
cagâli-ye sotun

Fr.: densité de colonne   

Density of the interstellar matter lying between an object and the Earth in a cylinder with a unity base.

column; → density.

colure
  کلدم   
koldom

Fr.: colure   

Either of two great circles of the celestial sphere that passes through the poles and meets the ecliptic at either the solstice points (the solstitial colure) or the equinox points (the equinoctial colure).

From L. colurus, from Gk. kolouros "dock-tailed," from kol(os) "docked" + -ouros "-tailed," from oura "tail;" so called because the lower part is permanently hidden beneath the horizon.

Koldom, from Mod.Pers. kol "docked, short," most probably cognate with the Gk. term, as above, + dom(b) "tail," Av. duma- "tail." Recorded in classical dictionaries, kol has several variants in a large number of dialects: kola, kalta, kel, kelma, koc, kall, kor, kul in Gilaki, Tâleši, Lori, Malâyeri, Hamedâni, Qâeni, and others, cf. Av. kaurva- "bald, docked," kaurvôduma- "with a bald tail," kaurvôgaoša- "with bald ears."

com-, col-, con-, cor-, co-
  هم-، هن-، ها-، هَ-   
ham- (#), han- (#), hâ- (#), ha- (#)

Fr.: com-, col-, con-, cor-, co-   

Prefix denoting "together; with; joint; jointly". It is sometimes used for intensification as in complete, complain, convince.

M.E., from O.L., classical L. form cum "together, together with," Gk. koinos "common," from PIE *kom- "beside, near, by, with."

Ham- and ham "together, with; same, equally, even," Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-, sa-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. hąm- (nasal a) appears in various forms: ham-, han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also həm-, hən-, ha- (Bartholomae, 1772). Variants in Pers. ha- as in (Anâraki) ha-bend, → connect, and (Kurd.) hasûn "to whet, sharpen," and hâ- as in hâ-dâdan, hâ-gereftan, see Dehxodâ.

coma
  گیس، گیسو   
gis, gisu (#)

Fr.: coma   

1) The glowing envelope of gas and dust that surrounds a comet's nucleus.
2) An elongated, → comet-shaped → image of a → point source of → light caused by → aberration in the → optical system. In → telescopes it is often because → off-axis rays of light striking different parts of the → objective do not focus in the same → image plane.
Coma Berenices; → Coma cluster; → hydrogen coma.

L. coma "hair," from Gk. kome "hair;" → hair.

Coma Berenices
  گیسوان ِ برنیکه   
Gisovân-e Bereniké (#)

Fr.: Chevelure de Bérénice   

Berenice's Hair. A → constellation made up of many faint stars and located near the north Galactic pole between → Canes Venatici to the north, → Virgo to the south, → Leo to the west, and → Boötes to the east. Abbreviation: Com; genitive: Comae Berenices.

coma; L. Berenices genitive of Berenice, a queen of Egypt, wife of Ptolemy III, who sacrificed her hair to Aphrodite, begging her husband's victory in the war with the Assyrians, who had killed his sister. While the story is an old one, the constellation is relatively new, being introduced by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601).

Coma cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ گیسو   
xuše-ye Gisu (#)

Fr.: amas de Coma   

The nearest rich cluster of galaxies which contains more than a thousand known galaxies, is about 20 million light-years in diameter, and lies about 280 million light-years away in the → constellation  → Coma Berenices. Also known as Abell 1656.

coma; → cluster.

combination
  میازش   
miyâzeš

Fr.: combinaison   

1) General: The act of combining or the state of being combined.
2) Math: The number of ways elements making up a set can be arranged into various groups without regard to their order in the group. → permutation

Noun from → combine

combinatorics
  میازشیک   
miyâzešik

Fr.: combinatoire   

A branch of mathematics dealing with the → combination and → permutation of sets of elements and mathematical relations that characterize their properties.

From combinator(ial) (from combinatorial analysis), + → -ics.

Miyâzešik, from miyâzeš, → combination, + -k, → -ics.

combine
  میازیدن   
miyâzidan

Fr.: combiner   

To cause to join in a close union or whole; unite.

From M.Fr. combiner, from L.L. combinare "to unite, yoke together," from L. → com- "together" + bini "two by two," adv. from bi- "two, twice," cf. Av. biš "twice," bi-, dva- "two," Skt. dvi- "two," Gk. di-, O.E. twi-.

Miyâzidan, infinitive from miyâz-, variant of miz- in â-miz-, âmixtan "to mix," âmizé, âmižé "mixture," âmiq "mixture; copulation;" Mid.Pers. âmêz-, âmêxtan (Proto-Iranian *āmis- ,*āmiz-; PIE *meik- "to mix"); cf. Av. mayas- "to mix;" Skt. miks- "to mix, mingle," miśr- "to mix, blend, combine;" Gk. misgein "to mix, mingle;" L. miscere (p.p. mixtus) "to mix;" O.C.S. meso, mesiti "to mix," Rus. meshat, Lith. maisau "to mix, mingle."

combustible
  سوزا   
suzâ (#)

Fr.: combustible   

1) Capable of catching fire and burning; inflammable.
2) A combustible substance.

combustion; → -ible.

combustion
  سوزش   
suzeš

Fr.: combustion   

1) Any chemical reaction in which a substance (fuel) combines with oxygen to produce heat and often light. Combustion reactions usually involve a complex sequence of free-radical chain reactions. The light is produced by excited atoms, molecules, or ions.
2) → nuclear combustion.

M.E., from O.Fr. combustion, from L. combustionem (nominative combustio) "a burning," noun of action from p.p. stem of comburere "to burn," from → com-, intensive prefix + urere "to burn."

Suzeš, → burning

come
  آمدن   
âmadan (#)

Fr.: arriver   

To approach or move toward a particular person or place.

M.E., from O.E. cuman "come, approach, arrive;" cf. Du. komen, Ger. kommen, Goth. qiman; cognate with Pers. âmadan, as below.

Âmadan "to come, to occur;" Mid.Pers. âmatan; O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" Proto-Iranian *āgmatani; Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come."

comet
  دنباله‌دار، دمدار   
donbâledâr (#), domdâr (#)

Fr.: comète   

A small body of → gas and → dust which revolves around the → Sun in a usually very → elliptical or even → parabolic → orbit. It is seen to be composed of a → head, or → coma, and often with a spectacular gaseous → tail extending a great distance from the head. The rocky-icy head is called the → comet nucleus. As the comet nears the Sun, the increased temperature causes the → ice in the nucleus to → sublimate and form a gaseous halo around the nucleus, called the coma. Comets often possess two tails, a → dust tail that lies in the orbit behind the comet generated by surface activity, and a brighter, ionized → gas tail, that points away from the Sun, driven by → solar wind. → Long-period comets are thought to originate in the → Oort cloud, at distances exceeding 50,000 → astronomical units (AU). They are perturbed by the planets (especially → Jupiter) to fall in toward the Sun. Their orbits typically have random inclinations and a very large → eccentricity; some → hyperbolic orbits have been observed. → Short-period comets apparently arise in the → Kuiper belt in the zone from 20 to 50 AU. Their orbits typically have small eccentricities. Both cometary reservoirs are thought to represent primordial solar system material. A comet with a dust coating on its surface that inhibits gas production might be classified as an → asteroid. Because of this ambiguity, objects such as → Chiron, a → Centaur asteroid, have been reclassified as comets. Comets are primarily composed of amorphous → water ice, but also contain → carbon dioxide (CO2), → carbon monoxide (CO), → formaldehyde (H2CO), → methanol (CH3OH), → methane (CH4) at a few percent level (with respect to water), and many other molecules at a lower level. See also → comet designation.

From O.Fr. comète, from L. cometa, from Gk. (aster) kometes, "long-haired (star)," from kome "hair of the head," so called from resemblance of the comet's tail to streaming hair.

Dombâledâr, from dombâlé "tail," from domb, dom (Mid.Pers. dumb, Av. duma- "tail") + -âlé, -âl resemblance suffix, → -al + dâr "having, possessor," (from dâštan "to have, to possess," O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
  دنباله‌دار ۶۷P چوریوموف-گراسیمنکو   
donbâledâr 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Fr.: comète Churyumov-Gerasimenko   

A → comet with an irregular → nucleus of roughly 3 × 5 km across orbiting the Sun between → Jupiter and → Earth with a period of 6.45 years. The comet has been observed from Earth on seven approaches to the Sun: in 1969, 1976, 1982, 1989, 1996, 2002, and 2009. It was also imaged by the → Hubble Space Telescope in 2003, which allowed estimates of its size and shape. It arrived at → perihelion on 13 August 2015. In 2014 the → European Space Agency probe → Rosetta, launched in 2004, was placed on an orbit around 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Over an entire year, as it approached the Sun, Rosetta mapped the comet's surface and studied changes in its activity.

comet; Named after its discoverers, Klim Churyumov and Svetlana Gerasimenko, Ukrainian astronomers, who first noticed the comet in 1969.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>