An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
supernova feedback
  بازخورد ِ ابر-نو-اختر   
bâzxord-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: rétroaction des supenovae   

1) The process whereby the energy and matter contained in a → supernova are injected into the → interstellar medium after the → supernova explosion. The → thermal energy injected into the ISM serves to → suppress → star formation, while → heavy elements → nucleosynthesized inside SNe tend to enhance star formation.
2) The matter thus injected.

supernova; → feedback.

supernova impostor
  ابر-نو-اختر ِ دغلکار   
abar-now-axtar-e daqalkâr

Fr.: supernova imposteuse   

A brilliant burst of light that would suggest a → supernova explosion, but analysis of the star's → light curve, → spectrum, and → luminosity rules it out as a genuine supernova. Energetic → outbursts of → massive stars are often labeled as "supernova impostors" (Van Dyk et al. 2000). Many of these giant eruptions are spectroscopically similar to → Type II-n supernovae and thus receive a supernova (SN) designation, but are later recognized as subluminous or their spectra and light curves do not develop like true supernovae. Consequently, they are often referred to as "supernova impostors." These impostors or giant eruptions are examples of high → mass loss episodes apparently from evolved massive stars. Authors often refer to them as → Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), but these giant eruptions are distinctly different from LBV/→ S Doradus variability in which the star does not increase in luminosity and the eruption or maximum light can last for several years. The mechanisms triggering these events are not yet fully understood (see, e.g., Humphreys et al., 2016, arXiv:1606.04959v1).

supernova; → impostor.

supernova light curve
  خم ِ نور ِ اَبَرنووا، ~ ~ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
xam-e nur-e abarnovâ, ~ ~ abar-now-axtar

Fr.: courbe de lumière de supernova   

The graph of luminosity as a function of time after a → supernova explosion. The → light curve goes up rapidly to a → peak luminosity, then decays away slowly over time, with different rates, depending on the → supernova type. The temporal evolution of a supernova's luminosity contains important information on the physical processes driving the explosion. The observed → bolometric light curves provide a measure of the total output of converted radiation of → Type Ia supernovae, and hence serve as a crucial link to theoretical models of the explosion and evolution.

supernova; → light; → curve.

supernova progenitor
  زادار ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
zâdâr-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: progéniteur de supernova   

A star which is at the origin of a supernova phenomenon.

supernova; → progenitor.

supernova remnant (SNR)
  بازمانده‌ی ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
bâzmânde-ye abar-now-axt

Fr.: reste de supernova   

The body of expanding gas ejected at a speed of about 10,000 km s-1 by a → supernova explosion, observed as a diffuse → gaseous nebula, often with a → shell-like structure. Supernova remnants are generally powerful → radio sources. The evolution of the SNR can be divided into different phases according to the dominant physical processes. Simplified models are made for the first stages, to get an idea of typical time scales, expansion velocities, and sizes. The three main phases are: 1) the → free expansion phase, 2) the → Sedov-Taylor phase, and 3) the → snowplow phase.

supernova; → remnant.

supernova shock
  شوک ِ ابر-نوختر، تش ِ ~   
šok de abar-now-axtar, toš-e ~

Fr.: choc de supernova   

A → shock wave that forms when the inner → iron core (of ~ 0.5 Msun) → collapses until it reaches densities in excess of → nuclear density. At this point the pressure rises dramatically and resists further collapse. The homologous core bounces and drives out a shock wave that works its way through the remainder of the initial iron core. The small compressibility of nuclear matter halts the infall of the innermost core by an elastic collective bounce whose kinetic energy is almost immediately depleted by the → photodisintegration of heavy nuclei and the emission of → neutrinos.

supernova; → shock.

supernova types
  گونه‌های ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
gunehâ-ye abar-now-axtar

Fr.: types de supernova   

The classification of supernovae according to the presence or absence of the absorption lines of different chemical elements that appear in their spectra shortly after their explosion. Basically, supernovae come in two main types: those that have hydrogen (Type II, from a very massive star that blows up) and those that do not (Type I, due to thermonuclear runaways in a less massive star). Both types exhibit a wide variety of subclasses. Type Ia lacks hydrogen and presents a singly-ionized silicon (Si II) line at 6150 Å, near peak light. Type Ib has non-ionized helium (He I) line at 5876 Å, and no strong silicon absorption feature near 6150 Å. Type Ic shows weak or no helium lines and no strong silicon absorption feature near 6150 Å. Type II stars also have various subclasses. See also → Type I supernova, → Type Ia supernova, → Type Ib supernova, → Type Ic supernova, → Type II supernova, → Type II-L supernova, → Type II-n supernova, and → Type II-P supernova

supernova; → type.

supernumerary
  فرشمار   
faršomâr

Fr.: surnuméraire   

Exceeding the usual or prescribed number; extra; additional.

L.L. supernumarius "excess, counted in over" (of soldiers added to a full legion), from L. super numerum "beyond the number," → super- "beyond, over" + numerum, accusative of numerus, → number.

Faršomâr, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly;" also "above, upon, over; forward, along," → pro-, + šomâr, → number.

supernumerary rainbow
  رنگین‌کمان ِ فرشمار   
rangin-kamân-e faršomâr

Fr.: arc-en-ciel surnuméraire   

An additional faint arc or series of arcs just below the → primary rainbow. Supernumerary bows are caused by → interference and are more common toward the top of the bow.

supernumerary; → rainbow.

superposition
  برهم‌نهش   
barhamneheš

Fr.: superposition   

1) The act of placing upon; the state of being placed upon.
2) Math. The act of placing (one geometric figure) over another so that all like parts coincide.

super- + → position.

Barhamneheš, from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + -ham- "together, with," → syn-, + neheš, → position.

superposition principle
  پروز ِ برهم‌نهش   
parvaz-e barhamneheš

Fr.: principe de superposition   

1) Math.: The principle concerned with homogeneous and non-homogeneous → linear differential equations, stating that two or more solutions to a linear equation or set of linear equations can be added together so that their sum is also a solution.
2) One of the most fundamental principles of → quantum mechanics which distinctly marks the departure from classical concepts. It holds that any linear superposition of → wave functions is also a possible wave function. Simply put, the state of an object is all its possible states simultaneously, as long as we do not look to check. It is the measurement itself that causes the object to be limited to a single possibility. The superposition principle is rooted in the linearity of → Schrödinger's equation. Hence if two solutions of the wave function, ψ1 and ψ2, are known, other solutions, of the form: ψ = a1ψ1 + a2ψ2 also represent possible states of the system.

superposition; → principle.

supersaturation
  ابر-انجالش   
abar-anjâleš

Fr.: super-saturation   

The process whereby the amount of → water vapor in the air exceeds that needed to → saturate. In other words, the condition of air in which the → humidity is above the level required for saturation at a given temperature (i.e. the → relative humidity is greater than 100%). When the temperature drops below freezing, this can lead to a situation where more water vapor is present in the air than the air can hold. At every temperature, there is a maximum amount of water vapor that can be supported in the air. The higher the temperature, the more water vapor can be accommodated. But if the air that is already at 100% relative humidity is cooled then it becomes supersaturated, and this situation is unstable. As a result, the excess water vapor crystallizes out, either into water droplets or directly into ice.

super-; → saturation.

superscript
  زبرنوشت   
zabarneveš (#)

Fr.: indice supérieur   

An → index (a digit or symbol) written slightly above and to the right of a letter, such as for representing variable components in → tensor analysis. → subscript. The most common mathematical superscript is an → exponent. Other common superscripts are the single and double prime marks indicating the → first derivative and → second derivative of a → function. See also → contravariant tensor.

super- + script, → subscript.

Zabarneveš, from zabar- "above," → superior + nevešt "written," → subscript.

supersonic
  اَبَر-صدایی   
abar-sedâyi

Fr.: supersonique   

Describing a speed that is greater than the → sound speed in the medium concerned. See also → Mach number, → subsonic.

super-; → sonic.

supersymmetry
  اَبَر-همامونی   
abar-hamâmuni

Fr.: supersymétrie   

A class of theories that seek to unify the four fundamental forces of nature. It proposes symmetrical relationships linking fermions and bosons (particles of half integer spin, like electrons, protons, and neutrinos) with particles of integral spin (like photons and gluons).

super; → symmetry.

superthin galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَبَرنازک   
kahkešân-e abarnâzok

Fr.: galaxie supermince   

A galaxy that appears as an extraordinary thin and long figure on the sky because of its → edge-on orientation, highly flattened stellar → disk, and absence of a → bulge component. Superthin galaxies are → gas-rich and have optically diffuse disks with little internal absorption, as well as low emission-line intensity ratios and slowly rising → rotation curves. They seem to be among the least evolved disk galaxies in the local Universe, having undergone only minimal dynamical heating, → star formation, and → angular momentum transport. Examples are: UGC 7321, UGC 3697, UGC 9242.

super-; → thin; → galaxy.

superwind
  اَبَر-باد   
abar-bâd

Fr.: super-vent   

A galactic-scale wind driven by the collective effect of a large number of → supernovae and → winds from → massive stars occurring in the central region of a galaxy. Superwinds have been invoked, among other things, as the source by which the → intergalactic medium is provided with → enriched gas (see, e.g. Heckman et al. 1990, ApJS 74, 833).

super-; → wind.

superwind galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَبَر-باد   
kahkešân-e abar-bâd

Fr.: galaxie à super-vent   

A galaxy with → superwind characteristics. M 82 and NGC 4666 are among superwind galaxy candidates.

superwind; → galaxy.

supplement
  ۱) آپره؛ ۲) آپریدن   
1) âporé; 2) âporidan

Fr.: supplément   

1a) A thing added to something else in order to complete, reinforce, or extend it.
1b) A separation section added to a book, document, etc., to supply additional or later information, or the like.
2a) To complete, add to, or extend by a supplement.
2b) To form a supplement or addition to.

From L. supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up, complete," from → sub- "up from below" + plere "to fill;" cognate with Pers. por, as below.

Âporidan, from prefix â- + por "full;" Mid.Pers. purr; O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru-; Gk. polus; P.Gmc. *fullaz (O.H.G. fol, Ger. voll, Goth. full, O.E. full).

supplementary
  آپرنده، آپره‌ای   
âporandé, âpore-yi

Fr.: supplémentaire   

Completing something or added as a supplement.

supplement; → -ary.

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