An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Arches cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ تاقها   
xuše-ye tâqhâ

Fr.: amas des Arches   

One of the three → Galactic center clusters supposed to be the densest young → massive star cluster in the Milky Way. It contains the richest collection of → O stars and → WN Wolf-Rayet stars in any cluster in the Galaxy, thus representing the largest collection of the most massive stars in the Galaxy. With its estimated age of 2-3 million years, the Arches cluster is the youngest of the massive clusters in the Galactic center. → Quintuplet cluster; → Central cluster (Figer et al. 2002, ApJ 581, 258; and 1999, ApJ 525, 750).

Arches, from the presence of Galactic center thermal → arched filaments, about 100 → light-years in projection from the Galactic center (Morris & Yusef-Zadeh, 1985, AJ 90, 2511), from M.E. arche, O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus, → arc; → cluster.

archetype
  سرنمون   
sarnemun (#)

Fr.: archétype   

The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype (Dictionary.com).

arche-; → type.

Archimedes' principle
  پروز ِ ارشمیدوس   
parvaz-e Arašmidos

Fr.: principe d'Archimède   

A body immersed totally or partially in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. → buoyancy.

Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC - c. 212 BC), Greek mathematician and inventor; → principle.

Arašmidos altered form of Archimedes in classical Ar. texts; parvaz, → principle.

architecture
  مهرازیک   
mehrâzik (#)

Fr.: architecture   

1) The art or practice of designing and building structures.
2) Computers: The arrangement of the various devices in a computer system or network. See also → software architecture.

M.E., from M.Fr. architecture, from L. architectura, from architectus "architect," from Gk. arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" + tekton "builder, carpenter," → technique.

Mehrâzik, from mehrâz literally "chief mason," from meh- "great, large," → high, + râz "mason, builder" (Borhân-e Qâte'), from Mid.Pers. râz "builder, architect," probably related to O.Pers. râs-, Av. râz- "to direct, set, put in line" (with many cognates in Pers., such as râst "straight, direct, true;" raj, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"); cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -ik, → -ics.

archive
  بایگانی   
bâygâni (#)

Fr.: archive   

Any extensive record or collection of data.

Archive, from Fr. archives, from L. archivum, from Gk. arkheion "government house, town hall," from arkhe "government," from arkhein "to rule".

Bâygâni, maybe from *pâygâni, from pây-, pâyidan "to watch, guard, take care, conserve" + -gân, suffix referring to group, collection, + -i, noun-forming suffix.

Arctic
  هودرگان، شمالگان   
Hudargân, šomâlgân (#)

Fr.: Arctique   

The north polar area, north of latitude 66° 33' 8'' N.

Arctic, from O.Fr. artique, from L. arcticus, from Gk. arktikos "of the north," literally "of the (northerly prominent constellation) Bear," from arktos "bear" (cf. Av. arša-, Mod.Pers. xers, Tabari , Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-).

Hudargân, from hudar, → north, + -gân prefix denoting the direction.
Šomâlgân, from šomâl "north," from Ar. šemâl "north, left"+ -gân.

Arcturus (α Boötis)
  خرسبان، سماک ِ رامح   
Xersbân, Semâk-e râmeh (#)

Fr.: Arcturus   

The fourth brightest star in the sky (V magnitude -0.06) lying in the constellation → Boötes at a distance of about 35 light-years. Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K2 IIIp.

L. Arcturus, from Gk. Arktouros "guardian of the bear," arktos "bear," → Arctic + ouros "guardian, watcher".

Xersbân "guardian of the bear," from xers "bear" (Mid.Pers. xirs, Av. arša-, cognate with Gk. arktos, Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-) + -bân suffix meaning "watcher, keeper, guard".
Ar. Semâk-e râmeh.

area
  پهنه   
pahné (#)

Fr.: aire   

A particular extent of space or surface; the scope of a concept, operation, or activity.

The etymology is not clear; perhaps akin to L. arere "to be dry" → arid.

Pahné "area, field," from pahn "broad, wide" (Mid.Pers. pah(a)n, Av. pathana- "broad, wide, spacious," probably related to perethav- "broad, wide," Skt. prthav-, Gk. platus; PIE *plat- "to spread") + noun forming suffix .

areography
  بهرام‌نگاری   
Bahrâm-negâri

Fr.: aréographie   

The study of the surface features of Mars; the geography of Mars.

Areography, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -graphy.

Bahrâm-negâri, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -negâri-graphy.

areology
  بهرام‌شناسی   
Bahrâm-šenâsi

Fr.: aréologie   

The study of the origin, history, and structure of Mars; the geology of Mars.

Areology, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -logy.

Bahrâm-šenâsi, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -šenâsi-logy.

Argand diagram
  نمودار ِ ارگان   
nemudâr-e Argand

Fr.: diagramme d'Argand   

A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.

Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram.

Argelander method
  روش ِ آرگلاندر   
raveš-e Argelander

Fr.: méthode d'Argelander   

A technique to estimate the brightness of a → variable star. It involves comparing the variable with a sequence of neighboring stars of slightly different → magnitudes.

Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875), German astronomer. His most important work was his compilation of the Bonner Durchmusterung; → method.

Argo (Argo Navis; Ship Argo)
  کشتی   
Kašti (#)

Fr.: Navire Argo   

An extensive constellation, one of the 48 constellations known to Greeks, representing the ship of Argonauts. It was divided in 18th century into the constellations → Carina, → Puppis, and → Vela.

The ship in which Jason sailed in search of the Golden Fleece.

Kašti "ship," from Mid.Pers. kaštik.

argol
  لرد   
lerd (#)

Fr.: tartre   

A generally reddish matter that settles from a liquid, especially from wine. Same as → tartar.

M.E. argul, argoile, from M.Fr. argoil, from L. argilla "argil."

Lerd ou lert "the sediment of liquids, dregs, lees" (Dehxodâ).

argon
  آرگون   
ârgon (#)

Fr.: argon   

A → chemical element which occurs as a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas in the atmosphere (of which it constitutes 0.94% by volume) and in some volcanic gases; symbol Ar. → Atomic number 18; → atomic weight 39.948; → melting point -189.2°C; → boiling points -185.7°C.

Argon, from Gk. neutral of argos "inactive, idle, lazy," from negation prefix → a- + ergon "work," → energy. It was discovered in 1895 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English physicist Robert John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) in liquified atmospheric air.

argue
  آروزیدن   
âruzidan (#)

Fr.: argumenter   

To put forth reasons for or against.

argument.

argument
  آروزمان   
âruzmân (#)

Fr.: argument   

1) General: A discussion involving differing points of view; debate; a process of reasoning; series of reasons.
2a) Math.: The → independent variable of a → function.
2b) Math.: The → angle of a → complex number measured from the positive horizontal axis.
3) Astro.: → argument of periapsis, → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.
4a) Logic: A sequence of → propositions with one or more → premises and a → conclusion. Arguments are usually divided into two kinds, → deductive and → inductive.
4b) Logic: A → propositional symbol (→ variable or → constant) taken by a → predicate in an → atomic wff.

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. argmentum, from arguere "to make clear." Compare with L. argentum "silver," Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver," Av. auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"), Av. ərəzata- "silver," Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver," Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" PIE *arg- "to shine, be white, bright, clear."

Âruzmân, from Av. āroc- "to enlighten, make light," Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Skt. roka- "brightness, light," cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" + noun forming suffix -mân.

argument of periapsis
  آروزمان ِ پیراهباک   
âruzmân-e pirâhabâk

Fr.: argument du périastre   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting a → primary and its periapsis measured from the primary. Argument of periapsis is measured in the → orbital plane in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements. See also → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perigee
  آروزمان ِ پیرازم   
âruzmân-e pirâzam

Fr.: argument du périgée   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Earth and its perigee, measured from the Earth. See also: → argument of perihelion, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perihelion
  آروزمان ِ پیراهور   
âruzmân-e pirâhur

Fr.: argument du périhélie   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perihelion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>