An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Archimedes' principle
  پروز ِ ارشمیدوس   
parvaz-e Arašmidos

Fr.: principe d'Archimède   

A body immersed totally or partially in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. → buoyancy.

Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC - c. 212 BC), Greek mathematician and inventor; → principle.

Arašmidos altered form of Archimedes in classical Ar. texts; parvaz, → principle.

architecture
  مهرازیک   
mehrâzik (#)

Fr.: architecture   

1) The art or practice of designing and building structures.
2) Computers: The arrangement of the various devices in a computer system or network. See also → software architecture.

M.E., from M.Fr. architecture, from L. architectura, from architectus "architect," from Gk. arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" + tekton "builder, carpenter," → technique.

Mehrâzik, from mehrâz literally "chief mason," from meh- "great, large," → high, + râz "mason, builder" (Borhân-e Qâte'), from Mid.Pers. râz "builder, architect," probably related to O.Pers. râs-, Av. râz- "to direct, set, put in line" (with many cognates in Pers., such as râst "straight, direct, true;" raj, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"); cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -ik, → -ics.

archive
  بایگانی   
bâygâni (#)

Fr.: archive   

Any extensive record or collection of data.

Archive, from Fr. archives, from L. archivum, from Gk. arkheion "government house, town hall," from arkhe "government," from arkhein "to rule".

Bâygâni, maybe from *pâygâni, from pây-, pâyidan "to watch, guard, take care, conserve" + -gân, suffix referring to group, collection, + -i, noun-forming suffix.

Arctic
  هودرگان، شمالگان   
Hudargân, šomâlgân (#)

Fr.: Arctique   

The north polar area, north of latitude 66° 33' 8'' N.

Arctic, from O.Fr. artique, from L. arcticus, from Gk. arktikos "of the north," literally "of the (northerly prominent constellation) Bear," from arktos "bear" (cf. Av. arša-, Mod.Pers. xers, Tabari , Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-).

Hudargân, from hudar, → north, + -gân prefix denoting the direction.
Šomâlgân, from šomâl "north," from Ar. šemâl "north, left"+ -gân.

Arcturus (α Boötis)
  خرسبان، سماک ِ رامح   
Xersbân, Semâk-e râmeh (#)

Fr.: Arcturus   

The fourth brightest star in the sky (V magnitude -0.06) lying in the constellation → Boötes at a distance of about 35 light-years. Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K2 IIIp.

L. Arcturus, from Gk. Arktouros "guardian of the bear," arktos "bear," → Arctic + ouros "guardian, watcher".

Xersbân "guardian of the bear," from xers "bear" (Mid.Pers. xirs, Av. arša-, cognate with Gk. arktos, Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-) + -bân suffix meaning "watcher, keeper, guard".
Ar. Semâk-e râmeh.

area
  پهنه   
pahné (#)

Fr.: aire   

A particular extent of space or surface; the scope of a concept, operation, or activity.

The etymology is not clear; perhaps akin to L. arere "to be dry" → arid.

Pahné "area, field," from pahn "broad, wide" (Mid.Pers. pah(a)n, Av. pathana- "broad, wide, spacious," probably related to perethav- "broad, wide," Skt. prthav-, Gk. platus; PIE *plat- "to spread") + noun forming suffix .

areography
  بهرام‌نگاری   
Bahrâm-negâri

Fr.: aréographie   

The study of the surface features of Mars; the geography of Mars.

Areography, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -graphy.

Bahrâm-negâri, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -negâri-graphy.

areology
  بهرام‌شناسی   
Bahrâm-šenâsi

Fr.: aréologie   

The study of the origin, history, and structure of Mars; the geology of Mars.

Areology, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -logy.

Bahrâm-šenâsi, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -šenâsi-logy.

Argand diagram
  نمودار ِ ارگان   
nemudâr-e Argand

Fr.: diagramme d'Argand   

A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.

Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram.

Argelander method
  روش ِ آرگلاندر   
raveš-e Argelander

Fr.: méthode d'Argelander   

A technique to estimate the brightness of a → variable star. It involves comparing the variable with a sequence of neighboring stars of slightly different → magnitudes.

Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875), German astronomer. His most important work was his compilation of the Bonner Durchmusterung; → method.

Argo (Argo Navis; Ship Argo)
  کشتی   
Kašti (#)

Fr.: Navire Argo   

An extensive constellation, one of the 48 constellations known to Greeks, representing the ship of Argonauts. It was divided in 18th century into the constellations → Carina, → Puppis, and → Vela.

The ship in which Jason sailed in search of the Golden Fleece.

Kašti "ship," from Mid.Pers. kaštik.

argol
  لرد   
lerd (#)

Fr.: tartre   

A generally reddish matter that settles from a liquid, especially from wine. Same as → tartar.

M.E. argul, argoile, from M.Fr. argoil, from L. argilla "argil."

Lerd ou lert "the sediment of liquids, dregs, lees" (Dehxodâ).

argon
  آرگون   
ârgon (#)

Fr.: argon   

A → chemical element which occurs as a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas in the atmosphere (of which it constitutes 0.94% by volume) and in some volcanic gases; symbol Ar. → Atomic number 18; → atomic weight 39.948; → melting point -189.2°C; → boiling points -185.7°C.

Argon, from Gk. neutral of argos "inactive, idle, lazy," from negation prefix → a- + ergon "work," → energy. It was discovered in 1895 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English physicist Robert John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) in liquified atmospheric air.

argue
  آروزیدن   
âruzidan (#)

Fr.: argumenter   

To put forth reasons for or against.

argument.

argument
  آروزمان   
âruzmân (#)

Fr.: argument   

1) General: A discussion involving differing points of view; debate; a process of reasoning; series of reasons.
2a) Math.: The → independent variable of a → function.
2b) Math.: The → angle of a → complex number measured from the positive horizontal axis.
3) Astro.: → argument of periapsis, → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.
4a) Logic: A sequence of → propositions with one or more → premises and a → conclusion. Arguments are usually divided into two kinds, → deductive and → inductive.
4b) Logic: A → propositional symbol (→ variable or → constant) taken by a → predicate in an → atomic wff.

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. argmentum, from arguere "to make clear." Compare with L. argentum "silver," Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver," Av. auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"), Av. ərəzata- "silver," Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver," Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" PIE *arg- "to shine, be white, bright, clear."

Âruzmân, from Av. āroc- "to enlighten, make light," Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Skt. roka- "brightness, light," cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" + noun forming suffix -mân.

argument of periapsis
  آروزمان ِ پیراهباک   
âruzmân-e pirâhabâk

Fr.: argument du périastre   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting a → primary and its periapsis measured from the primary. Argument of periapsis is measured in the → orbital plane in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements. See also → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perigee
  آروزمان ِ پیرازم   
âruzmân-e pirâzam

Fr.: argument du périgée   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Earth and its perigee, measured from the Earth. See also: → argument of perihelion, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perihelion
  آروزمان ِ پیراهور   
âruzmân-e pirâhur

Fr.: argument du périhélie   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perihelion.

argumentation
  آروزش   
âruzeš

Fr.: argumentation   

The presentation and elaboration of an argument or arguments.

Noun from → argument.

argumentative
  آروزمانگین   
âruzmângin

Fr.: raisonneur   

1) Fond of or given to argument and dispute.
2) Of or characterized by argument; controversial.

argue; → -ive

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>