An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
force multiplier parameter
  پارامون ِ بستاگر ِ نیرو   
pârâmun-e bastâgar-e niru

Fr.: paramètre de multiplicateur de force   

One of the three quantities (k, α, and δ) which are used in the → radiation-driven wind theory to express the radiation pressure due to spectral lines. These coefficients parametrize the radiation acceleration as: grad≅ k(dv/dr)αge, where ge = σeL/4πcR*2 is the radiative acceleration by electron scattering. The parameter k is dependent on the number of lines that produce the radiation pressure. The parameter α depends on the optical depth of the driving lines and varies between 0 (optically thin) and 1 (optically thick). The parameter δ describes the dependence of k on the density with k ≅ ρδ. The velocity law of radiation-driven winds depends on α and δ, but not on k. The → mass loss rate depends on k, α, and δ (Castor et al. 1975, ApJ 195, 157; Lamers et al., 1995, ApJ 455, 269 and references therein).

force; → multiplier; → parameter.

force system
  راژمان ِ نیروها   
râžmân-e niruhâ

Fr.: système de forces   

Any set of forces acting on a → rigid body.

force; → system.

force-free magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ بی‌نیرو   
meydân-meqnâtisi-ye bi-niru

Fr.: champ magnétique sans force   

The condition in a plasma when the → Lorentz force is zero, that is when the electric current flows along the magnetic field. Force-free magnetic fields are encountered in astrophysical plasmas with negligible gas pressure. The solar corona is the best available example of such fields in action in a plasma.

force; → free; → magnetic; → field.

forced
  زوری   
zuri (#)

Fr.: forcé   

1) Physics: Caused by an external force. → forced oscillation.
2) General: Subjected to force, compulsory.

Adjective from → force.

Adjective from zur, → strength.

forced flow
  تچان ِ زوری   
tacân-e zuri

Fr.: écoulement forcé   

A fluid flow generated when external forces cause the fluid to flow, for example when a flow is caused by a pump. It contrasts with → free flow.

forced; → flow.

forced oscillation
  نوش ِ زوری   
naveš-e zuri

Fr.: oscillation forcée   

The oscillation of a system or object induced by an external periodic force. See also → free oscillation.

forced; → oscillation.

forearm
  ارش   
araš (#)

Fr.: avant bras   

The part of the arm between the → elbow and the → wrist.

From fore- a prefix meaning "before; front; superior," related to → per-; → arm.

Araš, variant ârenj "elbow;" Mid.Pers. âranj; O.Pers. arašan- "cubit;" Av. arəθnâ- "elbow;" Skt. aratni- "elbow," Iranian stem aratan-, araθn-, borrowed from Iranian into General Slavic as aršin "ell."

foreground
  پیش-زمینه   
pišzaminé

Fr.: avant-plan   

The ground or parts situated, or represented as situated, in the front; the portion of a scene or stellar field nearest to the viewer. → background.

From fore, from O.E. fore (prep.) "before, in front of;" (adv.) "before, previously" (cf. O.H.G. fora, Ger. vor, Goth. faiura); from PIE *per-/*pr- (cf. Skt. pura "before, formerly;" Av. paro "before;" Hittite para- "on, forth;" Gk. paros "before," para "from beside, beyond," peri "around, about, toward," pro "before;" L. pro "before, for, instead of," prae "before," per "through, for") + ground, from M.E., from O.E. grund; akin to O.H.G. grunt "ground."

Pišzaminé, from piš- "before; in front," from Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier;" O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of" + ziminé "ground," from zamin "earth, ground" → earth.

foreground absorption
  درشم ِ پیش-زمینه   
daršam-e pišzaminé

Fr.: absorption d'avant-plan   

Loss of radiant energy received from an astronomical object due to the presence of absorbing matter situated between the object and observer.

foreground; → absorption.

forest
  جنگل   
jangal (#)

Fr.: forêt   

1) A large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush; woodland (Dictionary.com).
2) In → graph theory, a → graph which contains no → cycles. The connected components of a forest are → trees.

M.E., from O.Fr. forest, probably from L.L. forestis (silva) "the outside woods," from L. foris "outside."

Jangal "a wood, forest, a vast land with plenty of trees;" cf. Skt. jangala- "arid , sparingly grown with trees and plants."

fork
  دوشاخ، دوشاخه؛ چنگال   
došâx, došâxé; cangâl

Fr.: fourche; forchette   

1) An instrument having two or more prongs or tines, for holding, lifting, etc., as an implement for handling food or any of various agricultural tools (dictionary.com).
2) Something resembling or suggesting this in form. → fork mounting.

Fork, from O.E. forca, from L. furca "pitchfork," of uncertain origin; → mounting.

Došâx, došâxé "two-pronged; fork," from do "two" (Mid.Pers. do, Av. dva-, Skt. dvi-, Gk. duo, L. duo, E. two, Ger. zwei, Fr. deux) + šâx "branch; horn," from Mid.Pers. šâk "branch;" cf. Lith. šaka "branch;" O.S. soxa "plough;" Gothic hoha "plough."
Cangâl "claws, fingers," from cang "claws, fingers," + -al, → -al.

fork mounting
  برنشاند ِ دوشاخه   
barnešând-e došâxé

Fr.: monture à fourche   

A type of → equatorial mounting consisting of a two-pronged fork, which forms the → polar axis, with the → telescope pivoted between the prongs of the fork on a → declination axis.

fork; → mounting.

form
  ۱) دیس، دیسه؛ ۲) دیسیدن؛ ۳) دیساندن   
1) dis, disé (#); 2) disidan (#); 3) disândan (#)

Fr.: 1) forme; 2) se former; 3) former   

1) (n.) General: The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its material.
Philosophy: The structure, pattern, organization, or essential nature of anything. Structure or pattern as distinguished from matter.
Logic: The abstract relations of terms in a proposition, and of propositions to one another.
2) (v.intr.) of form.
3) (v.tr.) of form.

From O.Fr. forme, from L. forma "form, mold, shape, case," origin unknown.

1) Dis, disé "form, appearance," variants -diz, -diš (tandis "body form, like a body; effigy;" mâhdis "moon-like;" šabdiz "night color; a horse of dark rusty color;" andiš- "to think, contemplate"), from Mid.Pers. dêsag "form, appearance," dêsidan "to form, build;" Av. daēs- "to show," daēsa- "sign, omen;" cf. Skt. deś- "to show, point out;" PIE *deik- "to show" (cf. Gk. deiknumi "to show," dike "manner, custom;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon, Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach").
2) and 3) corresponding infintives of dis, as above.

formal
  دیسه‌ای، دیسه‌ور   
diseyi, disevar

Fr.: formel   

1) According to, or following established or prescribed forms, conventions, etc.
2) Math., logic: Of a proof, in strict logical form with a justification for every step.
3) Math., logic: Of a calculation, correct in form; made with strict justification for every step; of or pertaining to manipulation of symbols without regard to their meaning.
4) → formal language.
5) → formal logic.

M.E. formal, formel, from L. formalis, from → form + → -al.

Diseyi, desevar, from dis, → form, + adj. suffixes -i and -var.

formal language
  زبان ِ دیسه‌ور   
zabân-e disevar

Fr.: langage formel   

A language designed for use in situations in which natural language is unsuitable, as for example in → mathematics, → logic, or → computer  → programming. The symbols and formulas of such languages stand in precisely specified syntactic and semantic relations to one another (Dictionary.com).

formal; → language.

formal logic
  گوییک ِ دیسه‌ای، ~ دیسه‌ور   
guyik-e diseyi, ~ disevar

Fr.: logique formelle   

The traditional or → classical logic in which the → validity or → invalidity of a conclusion is deduced from two or more statements (→ premises). Based on Aristotle's (384-322 BC) theory of → syllogism, systematized in his book "Organon," its focus is not on what is stated (the content) but on the structure (form) of the → argument and the validity of the inference drawn from the premises of the argument; if the premises are true then the logical consequence must also be true. Formal logic is → bivalent, that is it recognizes only two → truth values: → true and → false. The basic principles of formal logic are: 1) → principle of identity, 2) → principle of excluded middle, and 3) → principle of non-contradiction. See also → symbolic logic, → fuzzy logic.

formal; → logic.

formal system
  راژمان ِ دیسه‌ور   
râžmân-e diseyi, ~ disevar

Fr.: système formel   

In logic and mathematics, a system in which statements can be constructed and manipulated with logical rules.

formal; → system.

formaldehyde (H2CO)
  فورمالدهید   
formâldehid

Fr.: formaldehyde   

A colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor used as an adhering component of glues in many wood products. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is obtained most commonly by the oxidation of methanol or petroleum gases such as methane, ethane, etc.
In the → interstellar medium, formaldehyde is formed the surface of → dust grains. It is then converted into gas phase by → photodesorption. H2CO was the first → organic molecule discovered in the ISM (Lewis E. Snyder et al. 1969, Phys. Rev. Lett., 22, 679).

From form(ic) acid, from Fr. formique, + → aldehyde.

formalism
  دیسه‌گرایی   
disegerâyi

Fr.: formalisme   

1) Excessive adherence to prescribed forms.
2) Math., Logic: → Formalized expression of a set of elements; the nature of such expression.
3) A philosophical view of mathematics in which mathematics, including the logic used in proofs, can be based on the formal manipulation of symbols irrespective of their meaning.

From → formal + → -ism.

formality
  دیسه‌وری   
disevari

Fr.: formalité   

1) Condition or quality of being formal; accordance with required or traditional rules, procedures, etc.
2) Strict adherence to established rules and procedures (Dictionary.com).

formal; → -ity.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>