An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
void
  تهی   
tohi (#)

Fr.: vide   

1) An empty space; a gap or opening; emptiness. → vacuum.
2) A large region of cosmic space without galaxies. The first of these voids to be discovered lies in the direction of → Bootes and is some 300 million → light-years across. It is estimated that voids take up about 98% of the volume of the Universe, with clusters of galaxies concentrated in the thin walls that surround them.

M.E. voide, from O.Fr. voide "empty, vast, wide, hollow," from L. vocivus "unoccupied, vacant," related to vacuus "empty," → vacuum.

Tohi "empty" (variants in dialects Tabari tisâ, Saraxsi, Lâsgardi, Sangesari tusâ, Aftari tussâ); Mid.Pers. tuhig; Av. taoš- "to become empty," pres. tusa-, caus. taošaya-, tusən "they lose their posture;" cf. Skt. tuccha-, tucchya- "empty;" L. tesqua, tesca "deserted place;" Rus. tošcij "hollow;" PIE base *teus- "to empty."

Voigt effect
  اسکر ِ فوکت   
oskar-e Voigt

Fr.: effet Vogt   

Double refraction occurring when a strong → magnetic field is applied to a vapor through which light is passing perpendicular to the field.

Named after Woldemar Voigt (1850-1919), a German physicist (1908, Magneto- und Elektro-optik, B. G. Teubner, Leipzig); → effect.

Voigt profile
  فراپال ِ فوکت   
farâpâl-e Voigt

Fr.: profil de Voigt   

A spectral profile in which a → spectral line is broadened by two types of mechanisms, one of which alone would produce a & rarr; Gaussian profile (usually, as a result of the → Doppler broadening), and the other would produce a → Lorentzian profile.

After Woldemar Voigt (1850-1919), a German physicist; → profile.

Volans
  ماهی ِ پرنده   
Mâhi-ye Parandé (#)

Fr.: Poisson volant   

The Flying Fish. A constellation in the southern hemisphere at 7h 40m right ascension, -70° declination. Originally called Piscis Volans, and invented by Johann Bayer (Uranometria, published in 1603). Abbreviation: Vol; Genitive: Volantis.

L. Volans "flying," from volare "to fly."

Mâhi-ye Parandé, from mâhi "fish" (Mid.Pers. mâhik; Av. masya-; cf. Skt. matsya-; Pali maccha-) + parandé "flying, flier," from paridan "to fly" (Mid./Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather, wing," Av. parəna- "feather, wing;" cp. Skt. parna "feather," E. fern; PIE *porno- "feather").

volatile
  پرا   
parrâ

Fr.: volatile   

A substance that vaporizes at relatively low temperatures (e.g. H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, NH3, and so forth). The opposite of volatile is → refractory.

M.E., from M.Fr. volatile, from L. volatilis "fleeting, transitory, flying," from p.p. stem of volare "to fly," of unknown origin.

Parrâ "flying," from paridan "to fly in the air," → Volans.

volatile element
  بن‌پار ِ پرا   
bonpâr-e parrâ

Fr.: élément volatile   

In → planetary science, any of a group of → chemical elements and → chemical compounds with relatively low → boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's → crust and/or → atmosphere. For example, H, He, C, N, O are underabundant (relative to the solar → photospheric values) in all types of → meteorites, including the C1 → carbonaceous chondrites. Any heating of the meteorite parent body subsequent to its formation would tend to drive the volatile elements out of the rock, whence it sublimated into → interplanetary medium.

volatile; → element.

volcanic
  آتشفشانی   
âtašfešâni (#)

Fr.: volcanique   

Of or relating to a volcano. Characterized by volcanoes.

volcano; → -ic.

volcanic eruption
  اسدرش ِ آتشفشانی   
osdareš-e âtašfešâni

Fr.: éruption volcanique   

The explosive ejection of superheated matter from a → volcano.

volcanic; → eruption.

volcanic explosivity index (VEI)
  دیشن ِ اسکفتندگی ِ آتشفشانی   
dišan-e oskaftandegi-ye âtašfešâni

Fr.: indice d'explosivité volcanique   

A logarithmic scale, ranging from 1 to 8, used to measure the intensity of volcano eruptions. The VEI is based on several factors: the degree of fragmentation of the volcanic products released by the eruption, the amounts of sulfur-rich gases that form stratospheric aerosols, the volume of the eruptions, their duration, and the height is reached. The largest eruptions (8) produce an amount of bulk volume of ejected → tephra of ~ 1,000 km3.

volcanic; → explosivity; → index.

volcanic vent
  دودکش ِ آتشفشانی   
dudkaš-e âtašfešâni (#)

Fr.: cheminée volcanique   

vent.

volcanic; → vent.

volcano
  آتشفشان   
âtašfešân (#)

Fr.: volcan   

An opening in the Earth's → crust from which → lava, → ash, and hot → gases flow or are → ejected during an → eruption.

From It. vulcano, from L. Vulcanus, → Vulcan.

Âtašfešân, literally "fire disperser, dispersing fire," from âtaš, → fire, + fešân contraction of afšân, from afšândan "to spread, scatter," Mid.Pers. afšân "to spread, to scatter;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *apašan-, from root *šan- "to shake" (Cheung 2007).

volt
  ولت   
volt (#)

Fr.: volt   

The SI unit of potential difference, defined as the difference of potentials across the ends of a conductor in which a power 1 watt is liberated when a current of 1 ampere flows through it.

In honor of the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), known for his pioneering work in electricity and the invention of the first battery.

voltage
  ولتاژ   
voltâž (#)

Fr.: voltage, tension   

The electric potential difference expressed in volts.

From → volt.

voltaic
  ولتایی   
voltâyi (#)

Fr.: voltaïque   

Of, relating to electricity or electric currents, especially when produced by chemical action, as in a cell. → photovoltaic detector.

Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), Italian physicist, known for his pioneering work in electricity.

volume
  گنج   
gonj (#)

Fr.: volume   

The amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object or region of space, expressed in cubic units.

M.E. volum(e), from O.Fr. volume, from L. volumen (genitive voluminis) "roll (as of a manuscript), coil, wreath," from volvere "to turn around, roll."

Gonj "volume," gonjidan "to be contained or held; to hold;" gonjâyeš "capacity, holding, containing;" Mid.Pers. winj- "to be contained;" Proto-Iranian *uiac-/*uic-; cf. Skt. vyac- "to contain, encompass," vyás- "extent, content, extension;" L. uincire "to bind."

volume-limited survey
  بردید با گنج ِ حدمند   
bardid bâ gonj-e hyaddmand

Fr.: relevé limité en volume   

A survey in which the observed objects are contained in a given volume of space.

volume; → limited; → survey.

von Zeipel paradox
  پارادخش ِ فون زایپل   
pârâdxš-e von Zeipel

Fr.: paradoxe de von Zeipel   

A → rotating star cannot simultaneously achieve → hydrostatic equilibrium and → rigid body rotation. The paradox can be solved if → baroclinic flows (essentially a → differential rotation and a → meridional circulation) are included. For a broader view of the subject see: M. Rieutord, 2006, in Stellar Fluid Dynamics and Numerical Simulations: From the Sun to Neutron Stars, ed. M. Rieutord & B. Dubrulle, EAS Publ., 21, 275, arXiv:astro-ph/0608431.

von Zeipel theorem; → paradox.

von Zeipel theorem
  فربین ِ فون زایپل   
farbin-e von Zeipel

Fr.: théorème de von Zeipel   

A theorem that establishes a relation between the → radiative flux at some → colatitude on the surface of a → rotating star and the local → effective gravity (which is a function of the → angular velocity and colatitude). For a rotating star in which → centrifugal forces are not negligible, the → equipotentials where gravity, centrifugal force, and pressure are balanced will no longer be spheres. The theorem states that the radiative flux is proportional to the local effective gravity at the considered colatitude, F(θ) ∝ geff (θ)α, where α is the → gravity darkening coefficient. As a consequence, the stellar surface will not be uniformly bright, because there is a much larger flux and a higher → effective temperature at the pole than at the equator (Teff (θ) ∝ geff (θ)β, where β is the → gravity darkening exponent. In → massive stars this latitudinal dependence of the temperature leads to asymmetric → mass loss and also to enhanced average → mass loss rates. Also called → gravity darkening. See also → von Zeipel paradox; → meridional circulation; → baroclinic instability; → Eddington-Sweet time scale.

Named for Edvard Hugo von Zeipel, Swedish astronomer (1873-1959), who published his work in 1924 (MNRAS 84, 665); → theorem.

von Zeipel's law
  قانون ِ فون زایپل   
qanun-e von Zeipel

Fr.: loi de von Zeipel   

Same as the → von Zeipel theorem.

von Zeipel theorem; → law.

vortex
  گردشار   
gerdšâr (#)

Fr.: vortex   

Meteo.: A whirling mass of water or air.
A pattern of rotation in which the rotation direction rotates by 360° along any path which surrounds the centre of the vortex.

From L. vortex, variant of vertex "whirlpool; whirlwind, an eddy of water, wind, or flame;" from stem of vertere "to turn," cognate with Pers. gardidan, as below.

Gerdšâr (on the model of gerdâb "whirlpool" and gerdbâd "whirlwind"), from gard present stem of gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan "to change, to turn;" Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend") + šâr, from šâré, → fluid.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>