An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Raman effect
  اُسکر ِ رامان   
oskar-e Raman

Fr.: effet Raman   

Same as → Raman scattering.

Named after the Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888-1970), who discovered the effect; recipient of the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics; → effect.

Raman scattering
  پراکنش ِ رامان   
parâkaneš-e Raman (#)

Fr.: diffusion Raman   

The scattering of monochromatic light (visible or ultraviolet) by molecules in which the scattered light differs in wavelength from the incident light. It is caused by the light's interaction with the vibrational or rotational energy of the medium's scattering molecules.

Raman effect; → scattering.

Ramsden disk
  گرده‌ی ِ رمزدن، دیسک ِ ~   
gerde-ye Ramsden, disk-e ~ (#)

Fr.: disque de Ramsden   

The small circular patch of light visible in the back focal plane of an eyepiece.

Named after Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800), English maker of astronomical instruments; → disk.

Ramsden eyepiece
  چشمی ِ رمزدن   
cešmi-ye Ramsden (#)

Fr.: oculaire de Ramsden   

An eyepiece consisting of two planoconvex lenses of the same focal length, placed with the convex sides facing each other and with a separation between the lenses of about two-thirds of the focal length of each.

Named after Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800), English maker of astronomical instruments; → eyepiece.

random
  کاتوره   
kâturé (#)

Fr.: aléatoire, au hasard   

1) General: Made or occurring without a definite pattern, plan, or system; haphazard arrangement as if due to pure chance.
2) Statistics: Of or characterizing a process of selection in which each item of a population has an equal probability of being chosen.
See also:
random access memory, → random error, → random experiments, → random noise, → random sample, → random structure, → random thermal motion, → random variable , → independent random variables, → random walk, → randomization, → randomize, → randomness.

M.E. raundon, random "impetuosity, speed," from O.Fr. randon "rush, disorder, impetuosity," from randir "to run fast."

Kâturé originally "dazzled, confused," variants katré "disorderly, ragged, tattered, babble, meaningless or incoherent speech," katreyi "disorderly, at random;" maybe from kat- "to fall;" → case.

random access memory (RAM)
  بَرم با دسترسی ِ کاتوره   
barm bâ dastrasi-ye kâtruré

Fr.: mémoire à accès aléatoire   

In computer technique, a configuration of memory cells that hold data for processing by a central processing unit (CPU). The term random derives from the fact that the CPU can retrieve data from any individual location, or address, within RAM.

random; → access; → memory.

random error
  ایرنگ ِ کاتوره   
irang-e kâturé

Fr.: erreur fortuite   

The fluctuating part of the overall error that varies from measurement to measurement. Normally, the random error is defined as the deviation of the total error from its mean value; opposite of → systematic error.

random; → error.

random experiments
  آزمایش‌های ِ کاتوره   
âzmâyešhâ-ye kâturé (#)

Fr.: expériences aléatoires   

Statistics: Experiments in which results will not be essentially the same even though conditions may be nearly identical.

random; → experiment.

random noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ کاتوره   
nufe-ye kâture

Fr.: bruit aléatoire   

Unpredictable noise comprising large numbers of frequent, transient impulses occurring at statistically random time intervals. Thermal noise is a form of random noise.

random; → noise.

random sample
  نمونان ِ کاتوره   
nemunân-e kâturé

Fr.: échantillon aléatoire   

A sample selected at random from a population.

random; → sample.

random structure
  ساختار ِ کاتوره   
sâxtâr-e kâturé

Fr.: structure aléatoire   

Crystalline arrangement in which equivalent positions are not necessarily occupied by atoms of a single kind.

random; → structure.

random thermal motion
  جنبش ِ گرمایی ِ کاتوره   
jonbeš-e garmâyi-ye kâturé

Fr.: mouvement thermique aléatoire   

The agitated motion of molecular, atomic, or → subatomic particles in all possible directions at any temperature, except at → absolute zero, where → thermal motion would cease.

random; → thermal; → motion.

random variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ کاتوره   
vartande-ye kâturé

Fr.: variable aléatoire   

A quantity that takes different real values as a result of the → outcomes of a → random event or experiment involving specified probabilities.

random; → variable.

random walk
  پویش ِ کاتوره   
puyeš-e kâturé

Fr.: marche aléatoire, ~ au hasard   

The trajectory consisting of a series of successive moves in which the direction and size of each move is randomly determined.

random; → walk.

randomization
  کاتورش   
kâtureš (#)

Fr.: aléation   

Arrangement of data in such a way as to simulate chance occurrence.

Verbal noun of → randomize.

randomize
  کاتوریدن   
kâturidan (#)

Fr.: répartir au hasard   

To arrange or select in a random manner in order to reduce bias and interference caused by irrelevant variables.

Verbal form of → random.

randomness
  کاتورگی   
kâturegi (#)

Fr.: hasard   

The property of being random.

State, condition noun of → random.

range
  ۱) بُرد؛ ۲)، ۳) گستره   
1) bord; (#) 2), 3) gostaré (#)

Fr.: 1) portée; 2), 3) étendue   

1) Physics: The maximum distance a projectile travels.
2) Math.: The → set of values that actually comes out of a → function. The range is a → subset of the → codomain.
3) Statistics: The interval between the largest and smallest values in a statistical distribution.

M.E., from O.Fr. range "range, rank," from rangier "to place in a row, arrange," from reng "row, line."

1) Bord past stem of bordan "to carry, transport" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").
2) Gostaré, from gostar, gostardan "to expand; to spread; to diffuse" (Mid.Pers. wistardan "to extend; to spread;" Proto-Iranian *ui.star-; Av. vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" cf. Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" L. sternere "to spread;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow," stripe; PIE base *ster- "to spread").

rank
  رتبه   
rotbé (#)

Fr.: rang   

Position, in a series arranged in order, on the basis of some principle of arrangement, with reference to the other items or values in the series.

M.E., from O.E. ranc "proud, overbearing, showy," from O.Fr. renc, ranc, rang "row, line;" cf. Dan. rank "right, upright," Ger. rank "slender," O.N. rakkr "straight, erect," perhaps from PIE *reg- "to stretch, straighten," cognate with Pers. râst, → right.

Rotbé, loan from Ar. ratbat "rank."

Rankine scale
  مرپل ِ رنکین   
marpel-e Rankine

Fr.: échelle Rankine   

A temperature scale in which the degree intervals are the same size as in the → Fahrenheit scale, but 0 is set at absolute zero, -459.69 °F. Therefore, 1 degree Rankine is equal to exactly 5/9 → kelvin. It was formerly used by engineers in English-speaking countries, but is now obsolete. See also → Celsius scale, → Kelvin scale, → Reaumur scale.

Named for the British physicist and engineer William John Rankine (1820-1872); → scale.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>