An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
DZ white dwarf
  سفید‌کوتوله‌ی ِ DZ   
sefid kutule-ye DZ

Fr.: naine blanche DZ   

A → white dwarf whose spectrum shows metal lines only; no H or He.

D short for → dwarf; Z a convention; → white.

E corona
  تاج ِ E   
tâj-e E

Fr.: couronne E   

A part of the → solar corona defined by the → emission lines of hot gases. These emission lines include the so-called → forbidden lines of the strongly ionized atoms of iron, calcium, and other elements. The E corona is thinner than the → K corona and the → F corona (M.S.: SDE).

E indicating → emission; → corona.

E ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ E   
halqe-ye E

Fr.: anneau E   

The → Saturn's ring, with a width of 300,000 km, lying beyond the → G ring, at 180,000-480,000 km from the center of Saturn.

ring.

E-ELT
     
E-ELT

Fr.: E-ELT   

The world's largest → optical and → near infrared telescope, with a diameter of 42 m, to be built by the → European Southern Observatory (ESO). → First light is foreseen for 2018. The telescope has an innovative five-mirror design that includes advanced → adaptive optics to correct for the → atmospheric turbulence, giving exceptional → image quality. The → primary mirror will consist of almost 1000 hexagonal segments each 1.4 m across. The → secondary mirror will be 6 m in diameter. The E-ELT will collect 15 times more light than the largest optical telescopes operating today.
On 26 April 2010, the ESO Council selected Cerro Armazones as the baseline site for the E-ELT. Cerro Armazones is a mountain at an altitude of 3060 m in the central part of Chile's Atacama Desert, some 130 km south of the town of Antofagasta and about 20 km from Cerro Paranal, home of ESO → Very Large Telescope.

Short for the European Extremely Large Telescope

e-folding time
  زمان ِ e-تایی   
zamân-e e-tâyi

Fr.:   

The time within which the amplitude of an oscillation increases or decreases by a factor e (= 2.71828...).

From e the base of the natural, or Napierian, system of logarithms; folding, from -fold suffix meaning "of so many parts," or denoting multiplication by the number indicated by the stem or word to which the suffix is attached (as in twofold; manifold), from O.E. -feald, related to Ger. -falt; Gk. altos, -plos, -plus; → time.

Zamân, → time; e, as above; tâyi noun of multiplicative suffix, also "fold, plait, wrinkle; like, resembling."

e-mail
  پَیِل   
payel

Fr.: mél, courriel   

1) A system for sending → messages from one individual to another via telecommunications links between → computers or → terminals using dedicated → software.
2) A message sent by email (Dictionary.com).

From electronic, → electronic, + mail, from M.E. male, from O.Fr. male "wallet, bag," of Germanic source; cf. O.H.G. malaha "wallet, bag," M.Du. male "bag;") from PIE *molko- "skin, bag."

Payel, contraction of payâm-e elelktronik "electronic message," from payâm, → message, + elektronik, → electronic; cf. Fr. mél "e-mail," from message + électronique, or courriel "e-mail," from courrier + électronique.

E-mode polarization
  قطبش ِ ترز ِ E   
qotbeš-e tarz-e E

Fr.: polarisation en mode E   

A → polarization component in the → cosmic microwave background radiation that depends only on → gradient, is independent of → curl and does not have → handedness. In contrast to the → B-mode, the E-mode may be due to both the → scalar perturbations and → tensor perturbations.

E, indicating electric-field like; → mode; → polarization.

e-term of aberration
  بیراهش ِ ترم ِ e   
birâheš-e tarm-e e

Fr.: aberration elliptique   

The same as → elliptic aberration.

e, → elliptic; → term; → aberration.

E-type chondrite
  کوندریت ِ گونه‌ی ِ E   
kondrit-e gune-ye E

Fr.: chondrite de type E   

Same as → enstatite chondrite.

enstatite; → type; → chondrite.

Eagle Nebula (IC 4703)
  میغ ِ شاهین   
Miq-e Šâhin

Fr.: Nébuleuse de l'Aigle   

A prominent → H II region in the constellation → Serpens lying about 2 kpc away from the Sun. It measures about 30' across and surrounds the open cluster → M16 (NGC 6611), which contains at least 20 stars of spectral type B0.5 or earlier, including one 05V. At a projected distance from the cluster of about 2 pc, where the H II region has expanded into surrounding → molecular cloud, a striking → elephant trunk morphology or → pillar results. The nebula is the site of ongoing → star formation, especially in these pillar structures. The Eagle Nebula is often erroneously given the cluster's designation (M16).

Eagle, because the nebula's shape is vaguely reminiscent of an eagle in flight; from M.E. egle, from O.Fr. egle, from O.Prov. aigla, from L. → aquila "black eagle;" → nebula.

Miq, → nebula; Šâhin, → aquila.

ear
  گوش   
guš (#)

Fr.: oreille   

The vertebrate organ of hearing, which is also responsible for maintaining equilibrium. It is usually composed of three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.

M.E. ere, O.E. eare "ear" (O.N. eyra, Dan. øre, M.Du. ore, Du. oor, O.H.G. ora, Ger. Ohr); cf. Gk. aus; L. auris; Av. usi "both ears;" Lith. ausis; O.C.S. ucho; O.Ir. au; PIE *ous-.

Guš "ear" (gušidan "to hear," niyušidan "to listen"); Mid.Pers. gôš "ear," gôšidan "to hear, listen;" O.Pers. gauša-; Av. gaoša- "ear," gaoš- "to hear;" cf. Skt. ghosa- "noise, tumult," ghus- "to sound, cry or proclaim aloud;" PIE *ghous-.

early
  آغازین   
âqâzin (#)

Fr.: précoce; jeune   

Occurring at or near the beginning of a period of time, process, or sequence of events.

M.E. erlich (adj.), erliche (adv.); O.E. ærlice, from ær "soon, ere" (from P.Gmc. *airiz, from PIE *āier- "day, morning," cf. Av. ayar- "day, day time," ayarə.drājah- "duration of one day," ayarə.bara- "day's ride," Mid/Mod.Pers. parēr "the day before yesterday," from *parā.ayer- "the day before") + -lice "-ly," adverbial suffix.

Âqâzin adj. of âqâz "beginning," from Proto-Iranian *āgaHz-, from prefix ā- + *gaHz- "to run, start," cf. Sogdian āγāz "beginning, start" (Cheung 2007).

early AGB phase
  فاز ِ AGBی ِ آغازین   
fâz-e AGB-ye âqâzin

Fr.: phase initiale de l'AGB   

A fairly long-lived step in the evolution of → low-mass and → intermediate-mass stars when helium burning shifts from the center to a shell around the core. At this phase the stellar luminosity is provided almost entirely by → helium shell burning. The He-shell burning generally adds mass to the growing carbon/oxygen core, resulting in → degenerate matter due to its increasing density.

early; → AGB; → phase.

early solar system
  راژمان ِ خورشیدی ِ آغازین   
râžmân-e xoršidi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: système solaire primordial   

A period in the evolution of the → solar system when the planets and satellites were in the process of formation.

early; → solar; → system.

early spectral class star
  ستاره با رده‌ی ِ بینابی ِ آغازین   
setâré bâ rade-ye binâbi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: étoile de type spectral précoce   

A star near the beginning of the → spectral classification sequence. A star of → spectral type O, B, A, or F0 to F5. Same as → early-type star.

early; → spectral; → class; → star.

early Universe
  گیتی ِ آغازین   
giti-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: Univers jeune   

A qualitative term used to describe a phase in the history of the Universe, from the → Big Bang event to the apparition of the first structures (seeds of future galaxies), at a → redshift around 30.

early; → universe.

early-type galaxy (ETG)
  کهکشان ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
kahkešân-e gune-ye âqâzin

Fr.: galaxie de type précoce   

In the → Hubble classification, galaxies on the left part of the → Hubble sequence. Early-type galaxies tend to have redder colors, higher average surface brightnesses, and lower → neutral hydrogen content than → late-type galaxies. This terminology is based on the obsolete and erroneous idea that → elliptical and → lenticular galaxies might be evolutionary precursors to → spiral and → barred spiral galaxies.

early; → type; → galaxy.

early-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
setâre-ye gun-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: étoile de type précoce   

Hot, luminous stars of → spectral type O, B, A, and F0 to F5. They were originally thought, wrongly, to be at an earlier stage of evolution than → late-type stars. See also → spectral classification.

early; → type; → star.

Earth
  زمین   
zamin (#)

Fr.: terre   

The third planet from the Sun. At → perihelion, it is 147,099,590 km from the Sun, and at → aphelion it is 152,096.150 km, whereas its mean distance from the Sun (→ astronomical unit) is 149,598 × 106 km. Its orbital period is 365.2563 days (→ sidereal year) and its → eccentricity 0.017. Other characteristics: → axial inclination 23.44°; rotation period 23.934 h (→ sidereal day); mean density 5.52 g/cm3; mass 5.974 × 1024 kg; → escape velocity 11.18 km/s; average → albedo 0.37.
The Earth's atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 0.9% argon, plus carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and other gases in much smaller quantities. The atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1,000 mbar. The surface average temperature is 15° C, but it varies, on the average, between -50° C (winter, Siberia) and up to + 40° C (summer, Sahara).
Liquid water covers 71% of the surface. Over 5,000 active volcanoes have been registered throughout man's known history. The outer layer of the planet, the → lithosphere, is covered with the → crust. In the → upper mantle and beneath the lithosphere, lies → asthenosphere. Convection in the asthenosphere has caused → plate tectonics motions and continent drifts. The densest layer of the Earth is its → core, about 3000 km to 6400 km beneath the surface, consisting primarily of iron and nickel. This core is believed to be at the origin of the magnetic field, which reaches about 3 × 10-5 tesla near the equator. It has only one natural satellite, the Moon (M.S.: SDE).

M.E. erthe, from O.E. eorðe "ground, soil, dry land;" cf. O.N. jörð, M.Du. eerde, O.H.G. erda, Goth. airþa; from PIE base *er-.

Zamin, variant zami "earth, floor, land," Mid.Pers. zamig, Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam- "the ground, earth;" Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" (as in homo sapiens, homicide, humble, humus, exhume), humus "the earth;" O.Russ. zemi "land, earth;" PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth".

Earth mass
  جرم ِ زمین   
jerm-e zamin (#)

Fr.: masse de la Terre   

The mass of our planet Earth, which is 5.9736 × 1024 kg (3 × 10-6 → solar masses), 317.83 times smaller than the → Jupiter mass. The Earth mass is in particular used to describe the mass of → super-Earth  → extrasolar planets.

Earth; → mass.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>