An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
parabolic mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ سهمی   
âyene-ye sahmi (#)

Fr.: miroir parabolique   

A concave mirror that has the form of a paraboloid of revolution.

parabolic; → mirror.

parabolic orbit
  مدار ِ سهمی   
madâr-e sahmi

Fr.: orbite parabolique   

An orbit whose overall shape is like a parabola; it is the limiting case between an elliptical orbit (eccentricity less than 1) and a hyperbolic orbit (eccentricity larger than 1). The speed necessary to form a parabolic orbit is known as the escape velocity.

parabolic; → orbit.

parabolic velocity
  تندای ِ سهمی   
tondâ-ye sahmi

Fr.: vitesse parabolique   

The speed necessary to form a parabolic orbit around a gravitational center. It is also the minimum speed necessary to escape from the gravitational pull of a body.

parabolic; → velocity.

paraboloid
  سهمی‌وار   
sahmivâr (#)

Fr.: paraboloïde   

A solid formed by the revolution of a parabola about its axis.

From parabol(a), → parabola, + → -oid.

paradigm
  پرادیش، پارادیش   
parâdiš, pârâdiš

Fr.: paradigme   

1) General: A typical example of something.
2) Grammar: A set of word forms giving all of the possible inflections (declensions, conjugations) of a word.
3) Philosophy of science: A framework of concepts, results, and procedures within which subsequent work is carried out, as defined by the influential Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) in his classic The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962). "Normal science" proceeds within such a framework or paradigm. When a paradigm has to be changed (→ paradigm shift), there comes about a crisis and then scientific revolution. For example, Newton's mechanical paradigm was replaced by the paradigm of Einstein's relativistic universe. Each paradigm is an interpretation of the world, rather than an objective explanation. For criticism of Kuhn's views, see, e.g., Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
4) Term now occurring frequently in every kind of discourse, usually to mean something like "way of thinking" or "approach to a problem."

L.L. paradigma "pattern, example," especially in grammar, from Gk. paradeigma "pattern, model," from paradeiknynai "to exhibit, show side by side," from → para- "beside" + deiknynai "to show," related to dokein "to appear, seem, think," cognate with Av. daēs- "to show" (Mod.Pers. andišé, andiš "thought, think," see below); Skt. diś- "to show, point out," diśati "he shows;" L. dicere "to utter;" PIE base *deik- "to show, to pronounce."

Parâdiš, pârâdiš, from parâ-, pârâ, → para- + diš "to show," as in andiš, andišidan "to → think" (related to dis, disé, → form); Sogd. andiš "to seem," andêš "to show," andêšik "appearing;" ultimately from Av. daēs- "to show," s-aorist forms dāiš-, dôiš-, diš-, akin to Gk. deiknynai "to show," as above, dike "manner, custom;" Skt. diś- "to show, point out;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon, Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach."

paradigm shift
  کیب ِ پرادیش، دگرگونی ِ ~   
kib-e parâdiš, degarguni-ye ~

Fr.: changement de paradigme   

1) Philosophy of science: A process of revolutionary change in scientific → paradigms, whereby established scientific ideas are replaced by new ones. For instance, Copernicus' evidence that the Earth revolved around the Sun caused a paradigm shift in astronomy.
2) The idea of paradigm shift has been transferred from the sciences to other areas of society and culture, referring to a fundamental reorganization of how people think about an entire topic.

paradigm; → shift; → change.

paradox
  پارادخش   
pârâdaxš (#)

Fr.: paradoxe   

A statement, proposition, or situation that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality is or may be true. → Fermi paradox; → faint early Sun paradox; → twins paradox; → paradox of youth.

From L. paradoxum "contrary to expectation," from Gk. paradoxon, from neuter of adj. paradoxos "contrary to common opinion, unbelievable," from → para- "contrary to" + dox(a) "opinion, belief" + -os adj. suffix. The main component dox, from dokein "to appear, seem, think," is cognate with Av. daēs- "to show;" Skt. diś- "to show, point out," diśati "he shows;" L. dicere "to utter;" PIE base *deik- "to show, pronounce solemnly."

Pârâdaxš (on the model of Gk. paradoxos), from pârâ-, → para-, + daxš, from Av. daxš- "to reveal, instruct, point out," fradaxštar- "teacher," *daxšārə "revelations;" Mod.Pers. daxš "task, effort;" cf. Skt. daks- "to be able," dáksa- "able, expert."

paradox of youth
  پارادخش ِ جوانی   
pârâdaxš-e javâni

Fr.: paradoxe de jeunesse   

The observed presence of young stars in the immediate vicinity of the → supermassive black hole (SMBH), → Sgr A*, residing in the center of our Galaxy. The stellar population within 1 pc of the SMBH contains a variety of young and → massive stars orbiting the SMBH. Some of them are only about 20 Myr old and get as close as a few light-days to the SMBH, while from 0.1 to 0.4 pc even younger stars are found with ages of 3-7 Myr. The presence of these stars so near to the SMBH is a paradox. Their → in situ formation should be almost impossible, since the environment is too hostile for these stars to form. Indeed the strong → tidal influence of the SMBH should hamper their formation. On the other hand, the scenario considering their → migration from other places does not seem to be adequate. The time required for the migration from > 1 pc by dynamical friction would exceed their inferred ages unless the migration rate were somehow accelerated. This apparent contradiction was termed "paradox of youth" by Ghez et al. (2003, ApJ 586, L127). See also Genzel et al. (2010, Rev.Mod.Phys. 82, 3121, also at astro-ph/1006.0064).

Youth, the condition of being → young; → paradox.

parahydrogen
  پارا-هیدروژن   
pârâ-hidrožen

Fr.: parahydrogène   

Molecular hydrogen in which the nuclei (protons) of the two hydrogen atoms contained in the molecule have spins in opposite directions. → orthohydrogen

para-; + → hydrogen.

parallactic
  دیدگشتی   
didgašti

Fr.: parallactique   

Of or pertaining to a parallax.

Adj. form of → parallax.

parallactic angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دیدگشتی   
zâviye-ye didgašti

Fr.: angle parallactique   

Of an object in the sky, the angle between the → celestial pole, the object, and the → zenith. Since parallactic angle describes the orientation on the sky of the object for a particular observer, it can be an important quantity in some observations.

parallactic; → angle.

parallactic ellipse
  بیضی ِ دیدگشت   
beyzi-ye didgašt

Fr.: ellipse de parallaxe   

The path on the sky of the apparent position of a star as seen from the Earth, due to the Earth's annual motion around the Sun.

parallactic; → ellipse.

parallactic inequality
  ناهموگی ِ دیدگشتی   
nâhamugi-ye didgašti

Fr.: inégalité parallactique   

An irregularity in the Moon's motion caused by the Sun's gravitational attraction, which sets the Moon ahead or behind its normal orbital position. The Moon is about 2 arcminutes ahead of its expected position at first quarter, and a similar amount behind at last quarter.

parallactic; → inequality.

parallactic motion
  جنبش ِ دیدگشتی   
jonbeš-e didgašti

Fr.: mouvement parallactique   

The proper motion of a star due to the effect of the Sun's motion relative to the → local standard of rest.

parallactic; → motion.

parallax
  دیدگشت   
didgašt (#)

Fr.: parallaxe   

The apparent → shift of a nearby object's → position in relation to more distant ones when the nearby object is observed from different → viewing angles. See also → stellar parallax.

From M.Fr. parallaxe, from Gk. parallaxis "change, alteration," from parallassein "to alter, make things alternate," from → para- "beside" + allassein "to change," from allos "other;" → alias.

Didgašt, literally "view change," from did "sight, view; eye," from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + gašt "change, alteration," past stem of gaštan, gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

parallax angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دیدگشت   
zâviye-ye didgašt

Fr.: angle de parallaxe   

The angular displacement associated with → parallax.

parallax; → angle.

parallel
  پراسو   
parâsu

Fr.: parallèle   

1) Said of two or more things, such as lines or planes, that are equally distant from one another at all points.
2) Electricity: An arrangement of the components in an electric circuit so that the same voltage is applied to each component. Compare → series.

From M.Fr. parallèle, from L. parallelus, from Gk. parallelos "parallel," from para allelois "beside one another," from → para- "beside" + allelois "each other," from allos "other," → alias.

Parâsu, from parâ-, → para-, + su "direction, side," from Mid.Pers. sôk "direction, side."

parallel axis theorem
  فربین ِ آسه‌ها‌ی ِ پراسو   
farbin-e âsehâ-ye parâsu

Fr.: théorème des axes parallèles   

The → moment of inertia of a body about any given axis is the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the center of mass, plus the moment of inertia about the given axis if the mass were located at the center of mass. same as → Steiner's theorem.

parallel; → axis; → theorem.

parallel of altitude
  پرهون ِ فرازا   
parhun-e farâzâ

Fr.: almucantar   

A small circle on the celestial sphere whose plane is parallel to the celestial horizon. Same as → almucantar.

parallel; → altitude.

almucantar.

parallelepiped
  پراسورویه، لوزی‌وار   
parâsuruyé, lowzivâr

Fr.: parallélépipède   

A solid figure whose six bases are → parallelograms, opposite pairs being identical and parallel.

From Gk. parallelepipedon, from parallelos, → parallel + epipedon "plane surface," from neuter of epipedos "flat," from → epi- + pedon "ground," cognate with L. ped-, pes, → foot.

Parâsuruyé, from parâsu, → parallel, + ruyé, → surface. Lowzivâr, from lowzi, → rhombus + -vâr, → -oid.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>