An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13046 Search : far
plasma physics
  فیزیک ِ پلاسما، پلاسمافیزیک   
fizik-e plâsmâ (#), plâsmâ fizik (#)

Fr.: physique des plasmas   

The study of the physical properties of the various forms of plasmas and their processing.

plasma; → physics.

plasma tail
  دنباله‌ی ِ پلاسمایی   
donbale-ye plâsmâyi

Fr.: queue de plasma   

The ionized component of a comet's tail, driven nearly straight away from the Sun by the solar wind. Also called ion tail and gas tail.

plasma; → tail.

plasmapause
  پلاسمامرز   
plâsmâmarz

Fr.: plasmapause   

The sharp outer boundary of the plasmasphere, at which the plasma density decreases by a factor of 100 or more.

plasma + pause "break, cessation, stop," from M.Fr. pause, from L. pausa "a halt, stop, cessation," from Gk. pausis "stopping, ceasing," from pauein "to stop, to cause to cease."

plasma + marz "frontier, border, boundary," from Mid.Pers. marz "boundary;" Av. marəza- "border, district," marəz- "to rub, wipe;" Mod.Pers. parmâs "contact, touching" (→ contact), mâl-, mâlidan "to rub;" PIE base *merg- "boundary, border;" cf. L. margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); P.Gmc. *marko; Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin.

plasmasphere
  پلاسماسپهر   
pelâsmâsepehr

Fr.: plasmasphère   

In the magnetosphere, a region of relatively cool (low energy) and dense plasma that may be considered an outer extension of the ionosphere with which it is coupled. Like the ionosphere, the plasmasphere tends to co-rotate with the Earth.

plasma + → sphere.

plasmon
  پلاسمون   
plâsmon

Fr.: plasmon   

Physics: The quasiparticle resulting from the → quantization of → plasma oscillations. Plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons inside or on surfaces of materials.

From plasm-, from → plasma + → -on.

plasmonics
  پلاسمونیک   
plâsmonik

Fr.: plasmonique   

The research area dealing with the interaction of → plasmons and → photons and the technology of its practical use. Plasmonics represents one of the most active research fields at the interface of → nanotechnology and → optics.

plasmon; → -ics.

plastic
  شوکایند   
šukâyand

Fr.: plastique   

1a) Capable of being → deformed continuously and permanently without → rupture.
1b) Capable of being molded.
1c) Made or consisting of a plastic.
2) → plastic substance.

From L. plasticus, from Gk. plastikos "that may be molded, pertaining to molding," from plassein "to mold."

Šukâyand, literally "moldable," from šuk, contraction of šuka (Dehxodâ) "a mold in which ingots are cast" + âyand agent noun form of âmadan "to come; to become," → elastic.

plastic deformation
  وادیسش ِ شوکایند   
vâdiseš-e šukâyand

Fr.: déformation plastique   

Permanent → deformation of a → solid subjected to a → stress.

plastic; → deformation.

plastic substance
  زیریست ِ شوکایند   
zirist-e šukâyand

Fr.: substance plastique   

A substance which remains → deformed after an applied → force ceases to act.

plastic; → substance.

plasticity
  شوکایندی   
šukâyandi

Fr.: plasticité   

The property which enables a material to be → deformed permanently without → rupture during the application of a → force. An → elastic material becomes plastic above its → yield point. See also → elasticity, → ductility.

plastic; → -ity.

plate
  ۱) تیغه؛ ۲)؛ ۳) پلاک   
1) tiqé (#); 2); 3) pelâk (#)

Fr.: 1) lame; 2); 3) plaque   

1) Optics: Any crystalline material whose length is much less than its measured diameter. → half-wave plate.
2) A flat piece of material on which a picture or text has been produced.
3) Any of the large movable segments into which the Earth's lithosphere is divided. → plate tectonics.

M.E., from O.Fr. plate "thin piece of metal," from M.L. plata "plate, piece of metal," perhaps via V.L. *plattus, from Gk. platys " flat, broad."

1) Tiqé, from tiq "blade," related to tiz "sharp," variants tig, tež, tej, tij; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians)," Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear," cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. in-stigare "to goad," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to stab, prick," Du. stecken, O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon," E. stick.
2); 3) loanword from Fr., as above.

plate center
  مرکز ِ پلاک   
markaz-e pelâk

Fr.: centre de plaque   

The celestial coordinates of the center of the field of an astronomical photographic plate.

plate; → center.

plate scale
  مرپل ِ پلاک   
marpel-e pelâk

Fr.: échelle de plaque   

The scale factor for converting linear measure on a photographic plate to angular measurement on the sky.

plate; → scale.

plate tectonics
  سازانیک ِ پلاک   
sâzânik-e pelâk

Fr.: tectonique des plaques   

The theory supported by a wide range of evidence in which the Earth's crust is composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The interaction of the plates at their boundaries causes seismic and tectonic activity along these boundaries. See also → continental drift.

plate; → tectonics.

plateau
  تختال   
taxtâl

Fr.: plateau   

1) An extensive area with a fairly level surface raised sharply above adjacent land.
2) A period, phase, or state of little or no growth or decline in something. → Spite plateau.

From Fr. plateau, from O.Fr. platel "flat piece of metal, wood, etc.," diminutive of plat "flat surface or thing," → plate.

Taxtâl, from taxt "flat;" Mid.Pers. taxtag "tablet, plank, (chess)board" + -âl, → -al.

platelet
  پلاکچه   
pelâkcé

Fr.: plaquette   

1) A small platelike body.
2) One of a variety of forms taken on by → snowflakes.
3) A tiny cell occurring in the blood of vertebrates and involved in clotting of the blood. Formerly called thrombocyte.

plate; → -let.

platinum
  پلاتین   
pelâtin (#)

Fr.: platine   

A silvery metallic → chemical element which is tenacious, malleable, and ductile; symbol Pt. → Atomic number 78; → atomic weight 195.08; → melting point 1,772°C; → boiling point 3,827±100°C; → specific gravity 21.45 at 20°C; → valence +2 or +4. It has several short-lived → radioactive isotopes, with the exception of 190Pt whose → half-life is 6.0 x 1011 years.

From Sp. platina diminutive of plata "silver," from O.Fr. → plate "sheet of metal." The first known reference to platinum can be found in the writing of Italian physician, scholar, and poet Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558). He reported seeing the metal during a visit to Central America in 1557. Aborigines knew of no use for the metal and regarded it as a nuisance in their search for gold and silver. By the end of the 17th century, the Spanish conquistadors started developing the river soil looking for gold and found some gray looking beads together with the gold. They called those little silver beads platina "small silver." They became known as platina del Pinto "granules of silvery material from the Pinto River," a tributary of the San Juan River in the Chocó region of Colombia. The first complete description of platinum was given in 1735 by the the Spanish explorer and naval officer Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795).

Pelâtin, loanword from Fr.

platinum group element (PGE)
  بن‌پار ِ گروه ِ پلاتین   
bonpâr-e goruh-e pelâtin

Fr.: élément du groupe du platine   

One of the six metals → platinum (Pt), → iridium (Ir), → osmium (Os), → palladium (Pd), → rhenium (Rh), and → ruthenium (Ru) that are grouped together in the → periodic table. They are relatively hard and resistant to corrosion and are used in jewellery and in some industrial applications. All are resistant to chemical attack.

platinum; → group; → element.

Platonic year
  سال ِ پلاتونی، ~ افلاتونی   
sâl-e Plâtoni, ~ Aflâtuni

Fr.: année platonique   

The time required for a complete revolution of the Earth's pole on the celestial sphere as the result of → precession. A Platonic year is equal to 25 800 years.

Of or pertaining to Gk. philosopher Plato, from Gk. Platon "broad-shouldered," from platys "broad." → year.

platykurtic
  پست‌افراشته   
past-afrâšté

Fr.: platycurtique   

A frequency distribution with negative → kurtosis, which has a smaller "peak" around the mean than the corresponding normal distribution. → leptokurtic.

From Gk. platys "flat", → plate + → kurtosis.

Past-afrâšté, literally "lowly elevated," from past "low; plain" (Mid.Pers. past; proto-Iranian *pasta- "fallen," from *pat- "to fall," cf. Av. pat- "to fall; to fly; to rush," patarəta- "winged;" Mid.Pers. opastan "to fall," patet "falls;" Mod.Pers. oftâdan "to fall," oft "fall;" Skt. patati "he flies, falls," pátra- "wing, feather, leaf;" Gk. piptein "to fall," pterux "wing;" L. penna "feather, wing;" O.E. feðer "feather;" PIE base *pet- "to fly, rush") + afrâšté "raised, elevated, erect," p.p. of afrâštan, → kurtosis.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>