An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
circumstellar maser
  میزر ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
meyzer-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: maser circumstellaire   

Maser emission from molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of → red giants, and also from regions around → protostars.

circumstellar; → maser.

circumstellar matter
  ماده‌ی ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
madde-ye pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: matière circumstellaire   

Dust, gas and plasma around stars, generally present in the form of stellar winds or nebulae ejected by the stars.

circumstellar; → matter.

circumstellar outflow
  استچان ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
ostacân-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: flot circumstellaire   

A stream of matter into the interstellar medium from a central star.

circumstellar; → outflow.

circumstellar shell
  پوسته‌ی ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
puste-ye pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: coquille circumstellaire   

A shell of dust, molecules, and neutral gas around an evolved star resulting from an intensive mass loss phase, such as the asymptotic giant branch phase for low- and intermediate mass stars and LBVs or supernovae for massive stars.

circumstellar; → shell.

circumzenithal arc
  کمان ِ پیراسرسویی   
kamân-e pirâsarsui

Fr.: arc circumzénithal   

A colorful halo centered on the zenith, appearing when the solar elevation above the horizon is not too high (< 32°).

circum-; → zenithal; → arc.

cislunar
  اینسوماهی، اینسومانگی   
insumâhi, insumângi

Fr.: cislunaire   

Lying between the Earth and the orbit of the Lune. → translunar.

L. cis, cistra "on this side," cf. Gk. ekeinos "that person," E. he, it, O.H.G. he.

Insuumâhi, insumângi, from insu "this side," from in "this" + su "side" + mâhi, mângilunar, → moon.

city
  شهر   
šahr (#)

Fr.: ville, cité   

Any large town or populous place.

M.E. cite, from O.Fr. cite "town, city," from L. civitas "citizenry; community," from civis "native, townsman;" related to L. cuna "cradle; bed;" Gk. kome "village;" Skt. śiva- "auspicious, dear;" O.E. ham "dwelling, house, village;" E. home; Ger. Heim (→ hamlet); Iranian dialects kiye "house, home;" Xonsâri ki "house;" Anâraki xiya, Tâti Karingân , Sangesari keh "house, home;" PIE *kei- "to lie; bed."

Šahr "city," from Mid.Pers. šahr "land, country, city;" O.Pers. xša- "to rule," pati-xša- "to have lordship over," Xšyāršan- "hero among kings" or "ruling over heroes" the proper name of the Achaemenid emperor Helenized as Xerxes, upari.xšay- "to rule over," xšāyaθiya- "king;" Mid.Pers. šâh "king," pâdixšâ(y) "ruler; powerful; authoritative;" Mod.Pers. šâh "king," pâdšâh "protecting lord, emperor, monarch, king," šâyestan "to be worth, suit, fit;" Av. xšā(y)- "to rule, have power," xšayati "has power, rules," xšāyô "power;" cf. Skt. ksā- "to rule, have power," ksáyati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property;" PIE base *tkeh- "to own, obtain."

civil
  شارین   
šârin

Fr.: civil   

Of or relating to citizens and their interrelations with one another or with the state.

M.E., from L. civilis "of or proper to a citizen," from civis "citizen, townsman," from PIE *kei- "to lie, homestead;" → city.

Šârin, from šâr "city," variant šahr; Mid.Pers. šahr "city, country, land" (O.Pers./Av. xšaθra- "kingship, kingdom," (Skt. ksatra-), from xšay-, "to rule;" cf. Skt. ksayati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property") + -in suffix of adjectives, relations and agent nouns (as in qamin "sorrowful," nušin "sweet, agreeable (thing)."

civil time
  زمان ِ شارین   
zamân-e šârin

Fr.: temps civil   

Mean solar time.

civil; → time.

civil twilight
  نیمتاب ِ شارین   
nimtâb-e šârin

Fr.: crépuscule civil   

The time between sunset or sunrise and the moment when the Sun's center lies 6° below the horizon. It is followed or preceded by → nautical twilight. See also → astronomical twilight. In the morning, this twilight phase ends at sunrise. In the evening it begins at sunset. Civil twilight is the brightest of the three twilight phases. As the Earth's atmosphere scatters and reflects much of the Sun's rays, artificial lighting is generally not required in clear weather conditions to carry out most outdoor activities. Only the brightest stars and planets, like Venus and Jupiter, can be seen with the naked eye.

civil; → twilight.

civilization
  شارینش   
šârineš

Fr.: civilisation   

1) An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, knowledge, production, and legal organization has been reached. The people or nations that have reached such a state.
2) The act or process of civilizing or being civilized.

verbal noun of → civilize.

civilize
  شارینیدن   
šârinidan

Fr.: 1) civiliser; 2) se civiliser   

1) To cause to evolve out of a primitive state as to technical, moral, or intellectual matters.
2) To acquire the customs and manners of a civil community.

civil + → -ize.

civilized
  شارین‌مند، شارینیده   
šârinmand, šârinidé

Fr.: civilisé   

1) Of a society or country, having well-organized laws and rules about way of life.
2) Cultured, polite.

Past participle of → civilize.

claim
  ۱) زویه؛ ۲) زوییدن   
1) zuyé 2) zuyidan

Fr.: 1) réclamation, revendication; 2) réclamer, revendiquer   

1a) A demand for something as due; an assertion of a right or an alleged right.
1b) An assertion of something as a fact.
2a) To demand by or as by virtue of a right; demand as a right or as due.
2b) To assert and demand the recognition of (Dictionary.com).
See also: → acclaim, → declaim, → proclaim.

M.E. claimen, from O.Fr. clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain," from L. clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE *kele- "to shout;" cf. Skt. usakala "cock," literally "dawn-calling;" Middle Irish cailech "cock;" Gk. kalein "to call;" L. calare "to announce solemnly;" O.H.G. halan "to call;" O.E. hlowan "to make a noise like a cow;" Lith. kalba "language."

Zuyidan, from zu- "to call;" cf. Av. zu- "to call;" O.Pers. (+ pati) zu- "to proclaim;" Sogd. 'zw- "to call;" Pashtu zwag "noise, clamour;" Skt. havi "to call upon, invoke;" O.C.S. zvati; Slov. zvati; Toch. B kwā- "to call out to, invite" (Cheung 2007).

Clapeyron equation
  هموگش ِ کلاپرون   
hamugeš-e Clapeyron

Fr.: équation de Clapeyron   

An equation that relates the temperature and pressure dependence of phases in equilibrium with the heat interaction and volume change associated with a phase change: dP/dT = L/T ΔV, where dP/dT is the slope of the coexistence curve, L is the → latent heat, T is the temperature, and ΔV is the volume change of the phase transition.

Named after Émile Clapeyron (1799-1864), a French engineer and physicist, one of the founders of → thermodynamics; → equation.

clarification
  آرونش، رونه‌کرد   
âruneš, runekard

Fr.: clarification   

The action of making a statement or situation less confused and more comprehensible.

Verbal noun of → clarify.

clarify
  آرونیدن، رونه کردن   
ârunidan, runé kardan

Fr.: clarifier   

1) To make (an idea, statement, etc.) clear or intelligible; to free from ambiguity.
2) To remove solid matter from (a liquid); to make into a clear or pellucid liquid (Dictionary.com).

clear; → -fy.

class
  رده   
radé (#)

Fr.: classe   

General: A set, collection or group formed of members with certain attributes or traits in common.

From Fr. classe, from L. classis "summons, division of citizens for military draft, hence army, fleet, also class in general."

Radé "a line, series, row," from Mid.Pers. ratak "series, row," O.Pers. râd-, Av. raz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order."

Class 0
  رده‌ی ِ 0   
rade-ye 0

Fr.: Classe 0   

A low-mass → protostar deeply embedded in a → circumstellar dusty envelope and resulting from the → gravitational collapse of a dense → pre-stellar core. This stage in the process of star formation occurs typically a few 104 years after the onset of the collapse. Class 0 protostars represent the earliest stage of → young stellar objects. The → spectral energy distribution (SED) of a Class 0 object resembles a → blackbody spectrum at a temperature below ~ 15-30 K, peaking at → submillimeter wavelengths beyond 100 μm. The central protostar has not yet acquired its final mass, since → accretion is still going on, and the envelope (detected in submillimeter wavelengths) is more massive than the central protostellar mass. Moreover, these objects show powerful → bipolar ejections of material in the form of collimated → carbon monoxide (CO)outflows which distinguish them from the pre-stellar phase of star formation. The subsequent evolution of a Class 0 is a → Class I.

class; → zero.

Class I
  رده‌ی ِ I   
rade-ye I

Fr.: Classe I   

A protostellar phase resulting from the evolution of a → Class 0 object typically a few 105 years after the beginning of the → gravitational collapse. The protostar grows in mass due to → accretion from the envelope, which becomes less massive than the protostar. An → accretion disk forms around the protostar through which mass is transferred to the central object. The → spectral energy distribution (SED) changes with respect to that of a Class 0. The peak of the SED shifts to → far infrared wavelengths (below 100 μm) as the temperature of the dust rises. Emission from both the envelope (about 100 K) and the thick disk (a few 100 K) are observed. The SED has a positive → spectral index (αIR > 0), so that the bulk of the → luminosity (still due to accretion) emerges at the longer infrared wavelengths. Moreover, → bipolar outflows and → jets are observed which are generally less powerful than those in Class 0 objects. Class I objects evolve into → Class II.

class; → one.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>