An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
rare
  پرز، کمیاب   
perz, kamyâb (#)

Fr.: rare   

Not occurring very often; not found in large numbers.

M.E., from O.Fr. rere "sparse" from L. rarus "thinly sown; not thick; having intervals between."

Perz, in several Iranian languages and dialects "little, few, small, minute part of any thing" (Khonsâri: perz, Qatrâni: perzema, Birjandi: porzu, Farâmarzâni: pesk, Kurd petik, Tabari: perik "minute quantity, particle"); maybe ultimately from Proto-Ir. *paraka- "small part," → part.
Kamyâb "rare, difficult to find," from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few"); + yâb present stem of yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire" (Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach").

rare earth element
  بن‌پار ِ خاکی ِ کمیاب، خاک ِ کمیاب   
bonpâr-e xâki-ye kamyâb, xâk-e kamyâb

Fr.: terre rare   

Any of the group of metallic → chemical elements with → atomic numbers between 57 and 71 inclusive. The name is an inappropriate terminology, since they are neither rare nor earth; preferred name → lanthanide.

rare; → earth; → element.

rare gas
  گاز ِ کمیاب   
gâz-e kamyâb (#)

Fr.: gaz rare   

Another name for → inert gas.

M.E., from O.Fr. rere "sparse," from L. rarus "loose, wide apart, thin, infrequent;" &rar; gas.

Kamyâb "rare, difficult to find," from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few"); + yâb present stem of yâftanyâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire" (Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach").

rarefaction
  آلرش   
âlareš

Fr.: raréfaction   

The state of being rarefied, less dense.
An instantaneous reduction in density of a gas resulting from passage a sound wave; opposite of → compression.

M.E. rarefien, from M.Fr. rarefier, from L. rarefacere "make rare," from rarus "loose, wide apart, thin, infrequent."

Verbal noun from âlar present stem of âlaridanrarefy + , a suffix.

rarefaction wave
  موج ِ آلرش   
mowj-e âlareš

Fr.: onde de raréfaction   

A pressure wave in a fluid generated by rarefaction. It travels in the opposite direction to that of a shock wave in the medium.

rarefaction; → wave.

rarefied gas
  گاز ِ آلریده   
gâz-e âlaridé

Fr.: gaz raréfié   

A gas whose pressure is much less than a reference pressure.

Past participle of → rarefy; → gas.

rarefy
  آلریدن   
âlaridan

Fr.: raréfier   

1) To make less dense.
2) To become less dense; become thinned.
Related concepts: → attenuate, → dilute, → decompress.

M.E. rarefien, from M.Fr. rarefier, from rare, combining form of rarus "loose, wide apart, thin, infrequent."

Alaridan, infinitive of âlar, from intensive/nuance prefix â- + lar "thin, meagre" (Dehxodâ), Lori, Laki larr, larrek "thin cow or sheep," Kurd. lerr "thin, lean," variants of laqar (Torbat-Heydariyé), lâqar "lean, meagre, slender; weak."

Rasalgethi (α Herculis)
  رأس‌الجاثی   
Ra's-el-jâsi (#)

Fr.: Rasalgethi   

The brightest star in the constellation → Hercules. It is a → red supergiant of type M5 (surface temperature about 3300 K) lying at a distance of 380 light-years. Rasalgethi is a variable star with a mean magnitude of V = 3.48. It has a fifth magnitude companion 5'' away. This secondary is itself a double that consists of a 4 solar-mass class G5 giant star with a temperature about that of the Sun and a 2.5 solar-mass F2 dwarf star (somewhat hotter than the Sun) in orbit around each other separated by 0.4 AU with a 52 day period.

Rasalgethi, from Ar. Ra's al-Jathi (رأس‌الجاثی) "the Kneeler's Head," in reference to an early name for the constellation, the figure of the man seen upside down, his head toward the south, from ra's "head" + jathi "kneeling."

Rasalhague (α Ophiuchi)
  رأس‌الحیه   
ra's-el-hayyé (#)

Fr.: Rasalhague   

The brightest star (V = 2.08) in the constellation → Ophiuchus. Rasalhague is a → giant star of type A5 lying 47 light-years from Earth. It has a faint, very close companion only 0''.5 away, 7 A.U., that orbits with a period of 8.7 years.

Rasalhague, from Ar. Ra's al-Hayyah (رأس‌الحیه), literally the "head of the snake," from ra's "head" + Hayyah "snake," referring to the creature in Gk. mythology.

rat
  گرز   
gerz (#)

Fr.: rat   

Any of various long-tailed rodents resembling mice but larger, especially one of the genus Rattus (TheFreeDictionary.com).

From M.E. rat, rotte, from O.E. ræt, of unknown origin.

Gerz, from (Lori, Laki) gerza "rat, big mouse," Gilaki (Lâhijân, Gâleš, Bandar-Anzali, etc.) gerze "rat; mouse," variant (Mâzandarân) gal "mouse," of unknown origin.

rate
  نرخ   
nerx(#)

Fr.: taux   

The amount of change of some quantity during a time interval divided by the length of the time interval.

M.E. rate "monetary value," M.Fr. rate "price, value," from M.L. rata (pars) "fixed (amount)," from L. rata "fixed, settled," p.p. of reri "to reckon, think," → reason.

Nerx "rate, price, tariff."

ratio
  وابَر   
vâbar

Fr.: rapport   

Math.: The quotient of two quantities arrived at by dividing one by the other.

From L. ratio "reckoning, calculation," also "reason," from rat-, p.p. stem of reri "to reckon, calculate," also "think," → reason.
Fr. rapport, back-formation from rapporter "bring back," from → re- "back, again" + apporter "to bring," from L. apportare "to bring," from → ad- "to" + portare "to carry."

Vâbar, on the model of Fr. rapport "bringing back," as above, from vâ- prefix meaning "back to the original place, again," → re-, + bar present stem of bordan "to carry, lead" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").

rational
  ۱) راینی، راینوار؛ ۲) خردانه، خردمندانه؛ ۳) وابری   
1) râyani, râyanvâr; 2) xeradâné, xeradmandâné; 3) vâbari

Fr.: rationnel   

1) Having or exercising the ability to → reason.
2) Consistent with or based on reason; logical; in accordance with sound reasoning.
3) Math.: Capable of being expressed as a quotient of integers.

M.E. racional, from O.Fr. racionel, from L. rationalis "of or belonging to reason, reasonable," from ratio (genitive rationis) "reckoning, calculation, reason," from rat-, pp. stem of reri "to reckon, calculate; consider, think."

1) Râyani, of or pertaining to râyan, → reason.
2) Xeradâné, xeradmandâné, of or pertaining to xerad "understanding, judgement, intellect, wisdom;" Mid.Pers. xrad "reason, intellect, intelligence, wisdom, understanding;" O.Pers. xraθu- "wisdom;" Av. xratu- "intelligence, undestanding, wisdom; will, purpose, council;" cf. Skt. krátu- "power, will-power;" Gk. kratos "power, strength."
3) vâbari, of or pertaining to vâbar, → ratio.

rational number
  عدد ِ وابری   
'adad-e vâbari

Fr.: nombre rationnel   

Any number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers, providing the second number is not zero.

rational; → number.

rationale
  راینال   
râyanal

Fr.: raisonnement, exposé raisonné   

1) The fundamental reason or reasons serving to account for something.
2) A statement of reasons.
3) A reasoned exposition of principles (Dictionary.com).

L. neuter of rationalis.

Râyanâl, from râyan, → reason, + -âl, → -al.

rationalism
  راین‌باوری، خردباوری   
râyan-bâvari, xerad-bâvari

Fr.: rationalisme   

A philosophical doctrine that holds that → reason alone, unaided by experience, can arrive at basic truth regarding the world.

From → rational + -ism a Gk. suffix used in the formation of nouns denoting action or practice, state or condition, principles, doctrines, and so forth.

Râyan, → reason; xerad, → rational; bâvari, from bâvar "belief" (Mid.Pers. wâbar "beleif;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing").

raven
  کلاغ   
kalâq (#)

Fr.: corbeau   

Any of several large, corvine birds having lustrous, black plumage and a loud, harsh call, especially Corvus corax, of the New and Old Worlds (Dictionary.com).

O.E. hræfn, hrefn; hræfn, cognate with O.Norse hrafn, Dan. ravn, Du. raaf, Ger. Rabe "raven," ultimately from PIE root *ker- imitative of harsh sounds (source also of L. crepare "to creak, clatter," cornix "crow," corvus "raven;" Gk. korax "raven," korone "crow;" O.C.S. kruku "raven;" Lith. krauklys "crow," related to Pers. kalâq, as below.

Kalâq, ultimately from Proto-Iranian*karak-, from *kar- "raven's harsh sound;" cf. Pers. qâr, qârqâr "croak," cognate with L. corvus, Gk. korax "a raven," Skt. kâkah, E. raven, as above and → crow.

raw data
  داده‌های ِ خام   
dâdehâ-ye xâm

Fr.: données brutes   

Data that are unprocessed or not yet subjected to analysis.

Raw, from M.E., from O.E. hreaw "uncooked, raw;" cf. M.Du. rau, O.H.G. hrawer, Ger. roh; PIE base *krowos "congealed, bloody" cf. Skt. kravis- "raw flesh," krura- "bloody, raw, hard;" Gk. kreas "flesh;" L. crudus "not cooked," cruor "thick blood;" Lith. kraujas, O.C.S. kruvi "blood;" → data.

Dâdehâdata; xâm "crude, uncooked;" Mid.Pers. xâm "crude, raw" (Khotanese hāma- "raw;" Ossetic xom "raw;" Pash. ôm "raw"); cf. Skt āmá- "raw, uncooked;" Gk. omos "raw, uncooked."

ray
  پرتو   
partow (#)

Fr.: rayon   

1) Any of the lines or streams in which light appears to radiate from a luminous body. → light ray.
2) The straight line normal to the wave front in the propagation of radiant energy.
3) A stream of material particles all moving in the same straight line.

M.E. raie, raye, from O.Fr. rai "ray, spoke," from L. → radius "ray, spoke, staff, rod."

Partow, ultimately from Proto-Iranian *pari-tap- "to shine around, radiate away." The first component *pari- "around, about;" cf. Mod.Pers. par-, pirâ- "around, about," from Mid.Pers. pêrâ; O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," per- "to pass over, beyond;" Skt. pari; Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" L. per "through;" PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond." The second component *tap- "to shine, radiate;" cf. Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "; to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."

ray of class 1
  پرتو ِ رده‌ی ِ ۱   
partw-e rade-ye 1

Fr.: rayon de classe 1   

In → rainbows, a sun ray directly reflected from the surface of a water → droplet.

ray; → class.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>