An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Bedin I
  بدین I   
Bedin I

Fr.: Bedin I   

A → dwarf spheroidal galaxy belonging to the → Local Group that was discovered serendipitously in 2019. Bedin I was detected using extremely deep → HST images (V ~ 30 mag) obtained for the purpose of investigating the → white dwarf cooling track of the Galactic → globular cluster NGC 6752. Bedin I is too faint and too close to the core of NGC 6752 for detection in earlier surveys. The discovery paper derives a → distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 29.70 ± 0.13 mag from the observed → red giant branch, i.e. ~ 8.7 → megaparsecs (~ 30 million → light-years), and a size of ~ 840 × 340 pc, about one-fifth the size of the → Large Magellanic Cloud. This object is most likely a relatively isolated → satellite galaxy of the nearby great → spiral galaxy NGC 6744. The study suggests the presence of an old (~ 13 Gyr) and → metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.3) population in Bedin I.

Named after the first author of the discovery paper, L. R. Bedin et al., 2019, MNRAS 484, L54.

bedrock
  سنگ‌بستر   
sangbastar (#)

Fr.: socle   

Solid → rock present beneath any → soil, → sediment, or other surface cover. In some locations it may be exposed at earth's surface.

Bedrock, from bed (O.E. bed, from P.Gmc. *badjam "sleeping place dug in the ground;" PIE *bhedh- "to dig, pierce") + → rock.

Sangbastar, from sang "stone, rock," → stone, + bastar "bed" (Mid.Pers. vistarak, cognate with Mod.Pers. gostar "a bed; spreading; scatterer," Av. star-, starəta- "spread," from star- "to spread," Skt. strnâti).

beech
  راش   
râš (#)

Fr.: hêtre   

Any tree of the genus Fagus, especially Fagus sylvatica of Europe, having smooth grayish bark. In Iran Fagus orientalis populates Caspian highland forests from Âstârâ to Gorgân.

M.E. beche, from O.E. becew; cf. Dutch beuk, Ger. Buche, from PIE root *bhagos "beech tree;" also cf. Gk. phegos "oak," L. fagus "beech," Rus. buzina "elder."

Râš, as named in Gilân, Râmsar, Šahsavâr, Kalârdašt. Its other names: (Mâzandarân) mers, (Ammaârlu, Manjil) râj, (Tevâleš, Mt. Dorfak) aluš, alâš, âlâš, (Nur) celer, celar (Iranica).

Beehive Cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ کندو   
xuše-ye kandu

Fr.: amas de la ruche   

Praesepe.

behavior
  رفتار   
raftâr (#)

Fr.: comportement   

Manner of behaving or acting.

M.E. behavour, from behaven "to behave," altered by model havour, from O.Fr. avoir "to have."

Raftâr "behavior, walking, going," from raft past tense stem of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack") + -âr prefix forming action noun.

Bekenstein formula
  دیسول ِ بکنشتاین   
disul-e Bekenstein

Fr.: formule de Bekenstein   

The mathematical expression giving the → entropy, S, of a → black hole as a function of the area of its → event horizon, A: S = (kc3A)/(4Għ), where k is → Boltzmann's constant, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, and G the → gravitational constant. It can also be expressed by S = (kA)/(4lP2), where lP is the → Planck length. The existence of this entropy led to the prediction of the → Hawking radiation, because an entropy is associated with a temperature and a temperature to a → thermal radiation. The entropy of a black hole increases continuously because the fall of material into it increases its area.

For Jacob D. Bekenstein (1947-), an Israeli theoretical physicist, who contributed to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics; → formula.

bel (B)
  بل   
bel (#)

Fr.: bel   

A dimensionless unit to measure sound. One bel designates a ratio 10:1 between two quantities, P1 and P0, which have the dimension of a power: n [B] = log (P1/P0), in Bel units, with → natural logarithm. If one sound is 2 bels louder than another, this means the louder sound is 100 times more intense than the fainter one. It is also common to use this definition for quantities that are proportional to a power, such as energy, work, intensity, or voltage. The bel was too large for everyday use, so the → decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 bel, is more commonly used.

This unit was put forward by engineers of the Bell telephone network in 1923 and named in honor of the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), who also invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf.

Belinda (Uranus XIV)
  بلیندا   
Belindâ

Fr.: Belinda   

One of the small satellites of → Uranus discovered from the Voyager 2 photographs taken during its encounter with the planet in 1986.

Named after the heroine in Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock.

Bell's inequality
  ناهموگی ِ بل   
nâhamugi-ye Bell

Fr.: inégalité de Bell   

Any of a large number of inequality relations developed to study the → hidden variable hypothesis suggested in the → EPR paradox. Using Bell's inequalities, the → Aspect experiment showed that no local hidden variable theory can make predictions in agreement with those of quantum mechanics. If, in a measurement, the inequality is violated, the measurement is in agreement with the predictions of the quantum theory. If the equality is satisfied, it suggests that a classical, causal, and local model is adequate to explain the outcome of the measurements. See also → quantum entanglement.

John Stewart Bell (1928-1990); → inequality.

Bellatrix (γ Orionis)
  بلاتریکس، مرزم   
Bellatriks, Merzam

Fr.: Bellatrix   

A bright, blue → giant star ( → spectral type B2 III), one of the main stars of the constellation → Orion. With a visual magnitude of 1.64, it is about 1000 times more luminous than the Sun, and lies at a distance of 243 → light-years.

From L. bellatrix "a female warrior," fem. of bellator, from bellum "war."

Merzam, Ar. name of the star; its other name is Nâjed.

belong
  پرگتیدن، پرگت داشتن   
pargetidan, parget dâštan

Fr.: appartenir   

1) (with preposition to) To be the property of.
2) (with preposition to) To be a part or adjunct of.

M.E. belongen, from be- intensive prefix, + longen "to go," from O.E. langian "pertain to, to go along with;" akin to Du. belangen, Ger. belangen; of unknown origin.

Pargetidan, literally "to surround, to relate with" (on the model of L. pertinere "pertain," Skt. parigraha- "surrounding; relation to"), from parget "to hold, seize, take around," from par- "around," → peri-, + get "to take, sieze," as in Tâleši gate "to take," Târi gata, Sorxeyi, Lâsgardi, Semnâni, Šâhmerzâdi -git- "take, seize," variants of gereftan "take, hold," → concept.

belongs to
  می‌پرگتد، پرگت دارد   
mipargetad, parget dârad

Fr.: appartient   

If x is an → element of a → set S, then x belongs to S and this is written x ∈ S.

Third person present verb of → belong.

belt
  کمربند   
kamarband (#)

Fr.: ceinture   

A strip of leather or cloth worn around the waist. Something that resembles this type of band, e.g. → Gould's Belt, → Belt of Venus.

O.E. belt, from P.Gmc. *baltjaz, from L. balteus "girdle;" → Orion.

Kamarband "belt," from kamar "waist" (Mid.Pers. kamar "waist; belt, girdle," Av. kamarâ- "belt") + band "a band, tie, belt."

Belt of Orion
  کمربند ِ شکارگر، ~ اریون   
kamarband-e Šekârgar, ~ Oryon

Fr.: Baudrier d'Orion   

Orion's Belt.

belt; → Orion.

Belt of Venus
  کمربند ِ ناهید   
kamarband-e Nâhid

Fr.: Ceinture de Vénus   

A pink to brownish border above the horizon separating the Earth's dark shadow on the sky from the sky above it. The Belt of Venus appears during a cloudless twilight just before sunrise or after sunset. It is due to scattered red sunlight in the atmosphere. Also called anti-twilight arc.

belt, → Venus.

BepiColombo
     
BepiColombo

Fr.: BepiColombo   

A → European Space Agency (ESA) mission aimed at studying → Mercury, the least explored planet in the inner → Solar System. It was launched on 20 October 2018. Among several goals, BepiColombo will make a complete map of Mercury at different wavelengths. It will chart the planet's → mineralogy and elemental → composition, determine whether the interior of the planet is molten or not, and investigate the extent and origin of Mercury's → magnetic field, the properties of its → magnetosphere, and history of the planet. The trajectory will also be modified by eight planetary flybys: of Earth in April 2020, Venus in 2020 and 2021, and then six times of Mercury itself between 2021 and 2025. BepiColombo will enter Mercury orbit in December 2025. BepiColombo is a joint mission between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), executed under ESA leadership.

Named after Giuseppe (Bepi) Colombo (1920-1984), a scientist who studied Mercury's orbital motion in detail as well as orbits and interplanetary travel in general.

Berenice's Hair
  گیسو   
Gisu

Fr.: Chevelure de Bérénice   

Coma Berenices.

Bernoulli equation
  هموگش ِ برنویی   
hamugeš-e Bernoulli

Fr.: équation de Bernoulli   

The equation expressing → Bernoulli's theorem: P + (1/2)ρV2 + ρgz = constant, where P is the fluid → pressure, V is → velocity, ρ is → density, g is the acceleration due to → gravity, and z is the vertical reference → level. The theree terms are called → static pressure, → dynamic pressure, and → hydrostatic pressure, respectively. The Bernoulli equation states that the total pressure along a → streamline is → constant.

Bernoulli's theorem; → equation.

Bernoulli's theorem
  فربین ِ برنویی   
farbin-e Bernoulli

Fr.: théorème de Bernoulli   

A statement of the → conservation of energy in the → steady flow of an → incompressible, → inviscid fluid. Accordingly, the quantity (P/ρ) + gz + (V2/2) is → constant along any → streamline, where P is the fluid → pressure, V is the fluid → velocity, ρ is the mass → density of the fluid, g is the acceleration due to → gravity, and z is the vertical → height. This equation affirms that if the internal velocity of the flow goes up, the internal pressure must drop. Therefore, the flow becomes more constricted if the velocity field within it increases. Same as the → Bernoulli equation.

After Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), the Swiss physicist and mathematician who put forward the theorem in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738; → theorem.

berry
  پلار   
pelâr

Fr.: baie   

1) A small, round fruit on particular plants and trees.
2) Botany: Any of various small edible fruits such as the raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry.

M.E. berye, from O.E. berie "berry, grape," cf. M.Du. bere, Ger. Beere, O.Sax. winberi, Gothic weinabasi "grape," Norwegian and Danish bær, of unknown origin.

Pelâr, from Hamadâni, Malâyeri pellâr, pellâra "berry, grape berry;" cf. Laki, Xonsâri palâra "raisin grape," Aligudarzi pellâr "part of a raison grape," of unknown origin (related to berry, as above?).

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>