An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Lyot division
  شکاف ِ لی‌یو   
šekâf-e Liyot (#)

Fr.: division de Lyot   

In Saturn's rings, the gap between rings B and C.

Named after Bernard Lyot (1897-1952), French astronomer who discovered the division. He was also a distinguished solar observer and invented (1930) the → coronagraph; → division.

Lyot filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ لی‌یو   
pâlâye-ye Lyot (#)

Fr.: filtre de Lyot   

A type of narrow-band filter consisting of a series of birefringent crystals and polarizers invented by the French astronomer Bernard Lyot (1897-1952) for isolating and observing significant wavelengths of solar light.

Lyot division; → filter.

Lyra
  چنگ   
Cang (#)

Fr.: Lyre   

The Lyre. A small, bright constellation in the northern hemisphere at about 19h right ascension, 40° declination. The brightest star in Lyra is → Vega.

L. lyra, from Gk. lyra, a foreign word of uncertain origin.

Cang "harp," frpm Mid.Pers. cang "harp."

Lyrids
  چنگیان   
Cangiyân (#)

Fr.: Lyrides   

A meteor shower that occurs between 18 and 24 April. Its radiant is in the constellation → Lyra.

Lyra + → -ids.

Lysithea (Jupiter X)
  لوسیته‌آ   
Lusitea (#)

Fr.: Lysithéa   

The eleventh of Jupiter's known satellites; it is 36 km across and orbits Jupiter at a distance of about 11,720,000 km with a period of 259 days. It was discovered by S. Nicholson in 1938.

Lysithea was a daughter of Oceanus and one of Zeus' lovers.

M dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ M   
kutule-ye M

Fr.: naine M   

A star whose spectrum is dominated by the absorption bands of → titanium oxide (TiO) and → vanadium oxide (VO) and has many neutral metal lines. The → effective temperature of M dwarfs ranges from about 3850 to 2600 K. They are low mass stars with masses ranging from 0.6 times that of the Sun at spectral type M0 to less than 0.1 → solar masses. M dwarfs are very abundant, they account for about 70-80% of stars in the → Galactic disk. The nearest star to the Sun, → Proxima Centauri, is an M dwarf.

M, letter of alphabet in the → Harvard classification; → dwarf.

M star
  ستاره‌ی ِ M   
setâre-ye M (#)

Fr.: étoile de type M   

A cool, red star of spectral type M with a surface temperatures of less than 3600 K. The spectra of M stars are dominated by molecular bands, especially those of TiO. Naked-eye examples are Betelgeuse and Antares.

M, letter of alphabet, → star.

M-type asteroid
  سیارک ِ گونه‌ی ِ M   
sayârak-e gune-ye M

Fr.: astéroïde de type M   

A type of → asteroid that consists of metallic → iron and displays high → albedo (0.10-0.18). M-type asteroids inhabit the middle part of the → asteroid belt.

M for → metallic; → type; → asteroid.

M16
     
M16

Fr.: M16   

An → open cluster in the constellation → Serpens associated with the → Eagle Nebula. It is usually mistakenly stated as being that nebula. Also called NGC 6611. First discovered by Philippe Loys de Chéseaux in 1745-6.

Object bearing the number 16 in the → Messier catalog.

Mach angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ ماخ   
zâviye-ye Mach

Fr.: angle de Mach   

Half of the vertex angle of the → Mach cone generated by a body in → supersonic flight. It is given by sin μ = (a/v), where a is the speed of the sound waves and v the velocity of the object. In terms of Mach number: μ = asin (1/M). The Mach angle diminishes with the object velocity. For M = 1 it is 90°, for M = 2, it is 30°, and for M = 5, its is 11.5°.

Mach number; → angle.

Mach cone
  مخروط ِ ماخ   
maxrut-e Mach

Fr.: cône de Mach   

The cone that confines the pressure disturbance created by a → supersonic object moving in a → compressible medium.

Mach number; → cone.

Mach disk
  گرده‌ی ِ ماخ، دیسک ِ ~   
gerde-ye Mach, disk-e ~

Fr.: disque de Mach   

Same as → shock diamond.

So named because Ernst Mach (1838-1916) was the first to record its existence.

Mach number
  عدد ِ ماخ   
adad-e Mach (#)

Fr.: nombre de Mach   

The ratio of the speed of a moving object to the → sound speed in the medium through which the object is traveling.

Named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach (1838-1916); → number.

Mach wave
  موج ِ ماخ   
mowj-e Mach

Fr.: onde de Mach   

The envelope of wave fronts created by a → supersonic source.

Mach number; → wave.

Mach's principle
  پروز ِ ماخ   
parvaz-e Mach

Fr.: principe de Mach   

The local → inertial frame and the → inertia of any body results from the distribution of all matter in the Universe. This principle has been neither confirmed nor refuted.

Mach number; → number.

machine
  ماشین   
mâšin (#)

Fr.: machine   

1) An apparatus consisting of interrelated parts with separate functions, used in the performance of some kind of work.
2) A device that transmits or modifies force or motion.

From M.Fr. machine "device, contrivance," from L. machina "machine, fabric, device, trick," from Doric Gk. makhana, Attic Gk. mekhane "device, means," related to mekhos "means, expedient," from PIE *maghana- "that which enables," from base *magh- "to be able, have power" (cf. O.C.S. mogo "be able," O.E. mæg "I can").

Mâšin, loanword from Fr.

MACHO
  مچو   
MACHO

Fr.: MACHO   

A collective term for objects that reside in the → halo of a galaxy (in particular → brown dwarfs) and which do not emit enough radiation to be detected from Earth. MACHOs can be spotted using the technique of → microlensing.

Acronym from Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects.

Maclaurin series
  سری ِ مک‌لورن   
seri-ye Maclaurin

Fr.: série de Maclaurin   

A → Taylor series that is expanded about the reference point zero.

Named after Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746), a Scottish mathematician.

macro-
  درشت-   
dorošt- (#)

Fr.: macro-   

A combining form meaning "large, long, great, excessive," used in the formation of compound words; opposite of → micro-.

From Gk. makros "long, large," from PIE base *mak-/*mek- "long, thin" (cf. L. macer "lean, thin;" O.N. magr, O.E. mæger "lean, thin").

Dorošt "large; rough, fierce," from Mid.Pers. društ "harsh, coarse;" O.Pers. darš- "to dare," daršam (adv.) "mightily;" Av. darš- "to dare," darši-, daršita- "bold, strong;" cf. Skt. dhars- "to be bold, courageous, to attack," dhrsita- "bold, daring;" Gk. thrasys "bold;" O.E. durran; E. dare.

macrocosm
  درشت‌کیهان   
dorošt-keyhân

Fr.: macrocosme   

The great world or Universe; the Universe considered as a whole (opposed to → microcosm).
A representation of a smaller unit or entity by a larger one, presumably of a similar structure.

macro-; → cosmos.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>