An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
sharp image
  وینه‌ی ِ تیگ، تصویر ِ ~   
vine-ye tig, tasvir-e ~

Fr.: image nette   

An image with clear and distinct details. Opposite of → blurred image.

sharp; → image.

sharpen
  ۱) تیز کردن؛ ۲) تیگیدن   
1) tiz kardan; 2) tigidan

Fr.: 1) aiguiser; 2) rendre plus net   

1) To make sharp or sharper.
2) To increase the spatial resolution or the clearness of an image; same as → deblur; → deconvolve.

Verbal form of → sharp.

Tigidan "to sharpen," verbal form of tigsharp.

Sharpless catalogue
  کاتالوگ ِ شارپلس   
kâtâlog-e Sharpless

Fr.: catalogue de Sharpless   

A list of 313 individual → H II regions in the → northern → Milky Way (north of declination -27°). It includes several → planetary nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → reflection nebulae. The first edition (Sh-1) was published in 1953 with 142 objects and second and final version (Sh-2) was published in 1959. The catalog categorizes the H II regions in terms of several parameters, such as diameter, form (circular, elliptical, irregular), structure (amorphous/filamentary), brightness, and number of associated stars, which are further discussed in terms of their spectral classes.

Stewart Sharpless (1959) A Catalogue of H II Regions, ApJ Suppl. 4, 257; → catalog.

Shaula (Lambda Scorpii)
  شوله   
Shulé (#)

Fr.: Shaula, λ Scorpii   

The second brightest star in the constellation → Scorpius, lying at a distance of 570 → light-years. With → Lesath (Upsilon Scorpii) both stars make up the Scorpion's stinger. Shaula is a → multiple star with three visible → components. The first one, Lambda Scorpii A, is classified as a B2 IV → subgiant. The 15th magnitude Lambda Scorpii B has a separation of 42 arcseconds from component A, while the 12th magnitude Lambda Scorpii C is 95 arcseconds from A. It is not known whether or not these components are physically associated with component A. The component A is actually a → triple system consisting of two → B-type stars and a → pre-main sequence star.

Shaula, from Ar. ash-shaulah (الشولاء) the "raised tail" of Scorpion.

SHB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ SHB   
setâre-ye SHB

Fr.: étoile SHB   

Same as → supra-horizontal branch star.

supra-; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

shear
  ۱) کرن؛ ۲) کرنیدن   
1) karn; 2) karnidan

Fr.: 1) cisaillement; 2) cisailler   

1) (n.) General: A scissors of large size.
Physics: A → stress applied to a body in the plane of its faces or perpendicular to its axis. As a consequence, parallel planes in the body remain parallel, but are displaced in a direction parallel to themselves. See also → strain.
2) (v.) General: To cut hair, fleece, or foliage from the surface of something using a sharp tool.
Physics: To cause something to deform or break by applying forces acting parallel to the plane.

M.E. sheren, O.E. sceran, scieran; cf. O.H.G. scrinden "to split;", Du. scheren, Ger. scheren "to shear;" from PIE *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack;" cf. Pers. kârd "knife;" Av. kart- "to cut;" Skt. krntáti "cuts;" Gk. keirein "to cut, shear;" Lith. skiriu "to separate."

1) Karn, from Laki caré, Farâhâni carra, Tabari carci "a scissors for cutting sheep wool," cognate with Pers. kârd "knife; " Mid.Pers. kârt "knife," karēnītan, karītan "to cut;" Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut," krpāna- "sword, knife;" Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."
Karnidan infinitive from karn.

shear modulus
  پیمون ِ کرن   
peymun-e karn

Fr.: module de cisaillement   

The ratio of the applied → stress to the change in shape (→ strain) produced in an → elastic body. The bigger this quantity the more rigid is the material since for the same change in strain a bigger force is needed. Also called → shear modulus.

shear; → modulus.

shear turbulence
  آشوبناکی ِ کرنی   
âšubnâki-ye karni

Fr.: turbulence de cisaillement   

A type of → instability occurring within a → fluid as a result of the → shear caused by → differential rotation. The condition for shear instability is expressed by the → Richardson criterion. Shear turbulence is likely the most efficient → mixing process in stellar → radiative zones.

shear; → turbulence.

shear wave
  موج ِ کرنی   
mowj-e karni

Fr.: onde de cisaillement   

A wave that occurs in an elastic medium with the disturbances perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. Shear waves do not propagate through a fluid. Also called S-wave, secondary wave, and transverse wave.

shear; → wave.

Shedir (α Cassiopeiae)
  صدر   
Sadr (#)

Fr.: Shedir   

The brightest star in the constellation → Cassiopeia. It is a supergiant K0 III star with a visual magnitude of 2.23 at a distance of 230 light-years. It has a large luminosity, 855 times that of our Sun, and a notable size, 48 times that of the Sun. Its effective temperature is 4530 K. Name variants: Schedar, Shedar, and Schedir. Also known as HR 168 and HD 3712.

From Ar. as-sadr (الصدر) "chest, breast," contraction of as-sadr-al-Zat-al-kursi (الصدر‌الذات‌الکرسی) "the chest of the throne's owner" or "the chest of the seated one" referring to the Ar. rendering of the character in Gk. mythology.

sheep
  گوسفند   
gusfand (#)

Fr.: mouton   

A domesticated ruminant mammal with a thick woolly coat and (typically only in the male) curving horns. It is kept in flocks for its wool or meat (OxfordDictionaries.com).

M.E., from O.E. sceap; related to O.Frisian skep, O.Saxon scap, O.H.G. scaf, Ger. Schaf.

Gusfand, guspand, from Mid.Pers. gôspand "cattle in general," especially "sheep, goats," as distinguished from horses and cows, Av. gaospənta- "sanctified, consecrated cow," from gao-, → cow, + spənta- "sanctfied, holy," → holiday.

shell
  پوسته   
pusté (#)

Fr.: coquille; couche   

1) General: A relatively thin external form covering a hollow space.
2) Physics: → electron shell.
3) → seashell.
4) Astro.: → shell burning; → shell galaxy; → shell star; → shellular rotation; → SNR shell.

M.E.; O.E. sciell, scill "seashell, eggshell," related to O.E. scealu "shell, husk;" cf. W.Fris. skyl "peel, rind," M.L.G. schelle "rind, egg shell," Goth. skalja "tile;" PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut, cleave."

Pusté "shell," from pust "skin;" Mid.Pers. pôst "skin;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Av. pastô-, in pastô.fraθanhəm "of the breadth of the skin;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth."

shell burning
  سوزش ِ پوسته   
suzeš-e pusté

Fr.: combustion en couche   

The nuclear reactions in a shell around a star's core that continue after the fuel in the core itself has been exhausted. As the fuel is progressively exhausted, the shell moves outward until it enters regions too cool for the reactions to continue. For example, after the exhaustion of hydrogen in the core, helium burning might take place in the core with a shell of hydrogen burning surrounding it. Stars may have more than one region of shell burning during their stellar evolution, each shell with its own nuclear reactions. → hydrogen shell burning; → helium shell burning.

shell; → burning.

shell galaxy
  کهکشان ِ پوسته‌دار   
kahkešân-e pustedâr

Fr.: galaxie en coquille   

An elliptical galaxy that is surrounded by thin shells of stars which are thought to have been ejected during a galaxy merger. Shell galaxies are different from ring galaxies in that the shells are much further away from the galaxy's centre and much fainter than the rings. Spectroscopy of the stars in the shell show that they are old whereas the stars in a ring galaxy are young.

shell; → galaxy.

shell star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پوسته‌دار   
setâre-ye pustedâr

Fr.: étoile à enveloppe   

A main-sequence star, usually of spectral class B to F, whose spectrum shows bright emission lines superimposed on the normal absorption lines. The emission spectrum is explained by the presence of a circumstellar shell of gas surrounding the star at the equator. Shell stars are fast rotators.

shell; → star.

shellular rotation
  چرخش ِ پوسته‌ای   
carxeš-e puste-yi

Fr.: rotation coquillaire   

A rotation mode in which internal rotation of a star depends essentially on depth and little on latitude: Ω(r,θ) = Ω(r), where r is the mean distance to the stellar center of the considered level surface (or → isobar). This particular mode was introduced by J.-P. Zahn (1992, A&A 265, 115) to simplify the treatment of rotational → mixing, but also on more physical grounds. Indeed differential rotation tends to be smoothed out in latitude through → shear turbulence. See also → von Zeipel theorem; → meridional circulation .

Shellular, the structure of this term is not clear; it may be a combination of → shell (referring to star's assumed division in differentially rotating concentric shells) + (circ)ular, → circular. The first bibliographic occurrence of shellular is seemingly in Ghosal & Spiegel (1991, On the Thermonuclear Convection: I. Shellular Instability, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 61, 161). However, surprisingly the term appears only in the title, and nowhere in the body of the article; → rotation.

Carxeš, → rotation; puste-yi, adj. of pusté, → shell.

shepherd
  چوپان، شبان   
cupân (#), šabân (#)

Fr.: berger   

A person who takes care of sheep; a pastor. → shepherd moon.

From M.E. shepherde; O.E. sceaphierde, from sceap "sheep" + hierde "herder," from heord "a herd;" cf. M.L.G., M.Du. schaphirde, M.H.G. schafhirte, Ger. dial. schafhirt.

Cupân "shepherd," variants šobân, šabân; Mid.Pers. šubân, from šu + -bân. The first component from Av. pasu-, fšu- "sheep;" Mid.Pers. pâh, pasvīk "cattle;" Laki and Tâti pas "sheep;" Kurd. pez/paz; Ossetain (Digor.) fus, (Iron.) fys; Zazaki pes "small cattle;" Lâri pah; Qasrâni cu; Sogd. psw "cattle, sheep;" cf. Skt. paśu- "cattle;" L. pecu "flock, farm animals, cattle," pecunia "money, property;" Goth. faihu "money, fortune;" O.E. feoh "cattle, money;" Ger. Vieh "cattle;" Lith. pekus "cattle;" PIE base *peku- "cattle." The second component -pân/-bân a suffix denoting "keeper, guard," sometimes forming agent nouns or indicating relation, → host.

shepherd moon
  مانگ ِ چوپان   
mâng-e cupân

Fr.: satellites bergers   

A → natural satellite in orbit near the edge of a → planetary ring, whose → gravitational force on the ring particles strongly controls the distribution of material within the ring, creating ringlets and density waves within the ring and sharp edges at ring boundaries. Examples include → Saturn's → Prometheus and → Pandora, which shepherd the narrow outer → F ring and the → Uranus satellites → Cordelia and → Ophelia and the epsilon ring. The faster-moving inside satellite accelerates the inner ring particles as it passes them, causing them to spiral out to larger orbits. At the same time the slower-moving outer satellite decelerates the outer ring particles as they pass by, causing them to spiral inward. The result is a narrow, well-defined ring.

shepherd; → moon.

shield
  سپر   
separ (#)

Fr.: bouclier, écran   

1) A broad piece of armor carried on the arm as a defense against swords, arrows, etc.
2) A person or thing that protects or defends. → heat shield; → ozone shield; → self-shielding; → shielding effect.

M.E. shelde, from O.E. scield, scild, related to sciell "seashell, eggshell;" cf. Du. schild, Ger. Schild, Goth. skildus; PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut."

Separ "shield," from Mid.Pers. spar "shield;" cf. Skt. phalaka- "board, lath, leaf, shield," phálati "(he) splits;" Gk. aspalon "skin, hide," spolas "flayed skin," sphalassein "to cleave, to disrupt;" O.H.G. spaltan "to split;" Goth. spilda "board;" PIE base *(s)p(h)el- "to split, to break off."

shielding effect
  اُسکر ِ سپر   
oskar-e separ

Fr.: effet d'écran   

The decrease in attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one → electron shell. The repulsion forces from other electrons in shells cause the net force on electrons in outer shells to be significantly smaller in magnitude. Also known as → screening effect.

shield; → effect;

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>