An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
extent
  استنه   
ostane

Fr.: étendu   

The range over which a thing extends; length, area, volume, or scope.

extension.

external
  بیرونی   
biruni (#)

Fr.: externe   

Of or pertaining to the outside or outer part.

M.E., from M.Fr. externe or directly from L. externus "outside, outward," from exterus, a comparative of → ex-, + → -al.

Biruni, adj. from birun "out, the outside," → out.

external photoelectric effect
  اسکر ِ شید-برقی ِ برونی   
oskar-e šid-barqi-ye boruni

Fr.: effet photoélectrique externe   

The → photoelectric effect in solids where free electrons are emitted from the surface of a substance (e.g., → semiconductor) when radiation of appropriate frequency falls on it. Also called → photoemissive effect.

external; → photoelectric; → effect.

external work
  کار ِ بیرونی   
kâr-e biruni

Fr.: travail externe   

The work done by a thermodynamic system as it expands against its surrounding environment. It is equal to ∫pdV, where p is the applied external pressure and V the volume, integrated from the initial V1 to final V2.

external; → work.

externalization
  برونش   
boruneš

Fr.: extériorisation   

Verbal noun of → externalize.

externalize + → -tion.

externalize
  برونیدن   
borunidan

Fr.: intériorisation   

1) To make external; embody in an outward form.
2) To regard or treat as being caused by externals; attribute to external causes (Dictionary.com).

external + → -ize.

extinction
  خاموشی   
xâmuši (#)

Fr.: extinction   

1) Dimming of light by an intervening medium (the Earth's atmosphere or the interstellar medium). It is usually due to both scattering and absorption.
2) Paleontology: The act or process of dying out or coming to an end, becoming extinct: the extinction of a species; → mass extinction.

Noun of extinct, from L. extinctus, p.p. of extinguere "to quench, wipe out," from → ex- "out" + stinguere "to quench," from PIE base *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce;" cf. Mod.Pers. tiz, tež, tig, tej, tij, tiq "sharp;" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow;" → deblur.

Xâmuši, noun of xâmuš "extinguished; silent," Mid.Pers. xâmôš "silent;" cf. Skt. amrs- "to bear patiently."

extinction coefficient
  همگر ِ خاموشی   
hamgar-e xâmuši

Fr.: coefficient d'extinction   

Gradient of apparent magnitude with air mass.

extinction; → coefficient.

extinction correction
  ارشایش ِ خاموشی   
aršâyeš-e xâmuši

Fr.: correction d'extinction   

In → photometric calibration, the correction for energy loss undergone by radiation due to the → atmospheric extinction. Extinction correction is done using → standard stars observed at different → airmasses.

extinction; → correction.

extinction curve
  خم ِ خاموشی   
xam-e xâmuši

Fr.: courbe de l'extinction interstellaire   

A graph representing the variation of the → interstellar extinction against → wavelength. Usually it displays the → normalized values of extinction as a function of (the → inverse) of the wavelength (in → microns). See, e.g., Sandage & Mathis, 1979, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 17, 73.

extinction; → curve.

extinction stars
  ستارگان ِ خاموشی   
setâregân-e xâmuši

Fr.: étoiles d'extinction   

Stars specifically observed at selected air masses in view of determining the atmospheric extinction coefficients.

extinction; → star.

ExTrA
  اکسترا   
ExTrA

Fr.: ExTrA   

A facility at → European Southern Observatory (ESO)'s → La Silla Observatory funded by the European Research Council and the French Agence National de la Recherche with the purpose of detecting and studying → transiting  → exoplanets. ExTrA will search for Earth-sized planets orbiting nearby → red dwarf stars. It uses three 0.6-metre telescopes. They regularly monitor the amount of light received from many red dwarf stars and look for a slight dip in brightness that could be caused by a planet passing across a star's disk and obscuring some of its light. The three ExTra telescopes collect light from the target star and four comparison stars and that light is then fed through optical fibres into a → multi-object spectrograph. This innovative approach of adding → spectroscopic information to traditional photometry helps mitigate the disruptive effect of Earth's atmosphere, as well as effects introduced by instruments and detectors, thus increasing the precision achievable.

ExTrA, short for Exoplanets in Transits and their Atmospheres, → exoplanet; → transit; → atmosphere.

extra-
  استر-، برون-   
ostar-, borun- (#)

Fr.: extra-   

Prefix meaning "outside; beyond the scope of; in addition to what is used or expected." Also extro-.

M.E., from L. extra, adverb and preposition, "outside, except, beyond," from exter "outward, on the outside."

Ostar-, from os-, → ex-, + -tar comparative suffix (Mid.Pers. -tar; Av. -tara; PIE base *-tero); borun-, from borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river").

extract
  ۱) برهنجیدن؛ ۲) برهنجه   
1) barhanjidan; 2) barhanje

Fr.: 1) extraire; 2) extrait   

1a) To draw or pull out, often with great force or effort.
1b) To obtain from a substance by chemical or mechanical action, as by pressure, distillation, or evaporation.
1c) To derive or obtain (information, for example) from a source.
1d) Math.: To determine or calculate (the root of a number).
2) Something extracted (FreeDictionary.com).

From L. extractus, p.p. of extrahere "to draw out," from → ex-"out, out of" + trahere "to draw" "to pull, draw," from PIE root *tragh- "to draw, drag, move."

Barhanjidan, from bar- "on; upon; against; before; at; in," → object, + hanjidan "to draw, to pull," variants âxtan, âhixtan, âhiz-, halanjidan, lenjidan; Mid.Pers. âhynj- "to draw up," other Pers. cognate sanjidan, farhang, nehang, etc.; ultimately from prefixed (*a-) Proto-Ir. *θanj- "to pull, draw;" Av. θanj- "to pull, to draw."

extraction
  برهنجش   
barhanješ

Fr.: extraction   

1) The act of extracting or the condition of being extracted.
2) Something obtained by extracting; an extract (FreeDictionary.com).

extract; → -tion.

extragalactic
  استرکهکشانی، برون‌کهکشانی   
ostar-kahkašâni, borun-kahkašâni

Fr.: extragalactique   

Of, pertaining to, or dealing with the space beyond the Milky Way.

From → extra- + → galactic.

extragalactic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ استرکهکشانی، ~ برون‌کهکشانی   
axtaršenâi-ye ostar-kahkašâni, ~ borun-kahkašâni

Fr.: astronomie extragalactique   

The branch of astronomy that deals with objects beyond the Milky Way, especially galaxies and quasars.

extragalactic; → astronomy.

extragalactic background light (EBL)
  نور ِ پس-زمینه‌ی ِ استر-کهکشانی   
nur-e paszimine-ye ostarkahkeši

Fr.: lumière du fond extragalactique   

The integrated intensity of all of the light emitted throughout the history of the Universe across the whole of the → electromagnetic spectrum, including those which are not individually detected. The EBL spectrum includes cosmological backgrounds associated with either primordial phenomena, such as the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), or photons emitted by stars, galaxies and → active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to → nucleosynthesis or other → radiative processes, including → dust scattering, → absorption and reradiation. The EBL may also contain signals that are diffuse and extended, including high-energy photons associated with dark matter particle decays or annihilation.

extragalactic; → background; → light.

extraordinary
  استرشونیک   
ostaršunik

Fr.: extraordinaire   

1) Beyond what is usual, ordinary, regular, or established.
2) Exceptional in character, amount, extent, degree, etc. (Dictionary.com). → unordinary.

extra-; → ordinary.

extraordinary ray
  پرتو ِ استرشونیک   
partov-e ostaršunik

Fr.: rayon extraordinaire   

When a beam of → unpolarized light is incident on a → doubly refracting crystal, there will be two refracted rays. The ray for which → Snell's law does not hold.

extraordinary; → ray.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>