An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Minkowski diagram
  نمودار ِ مینکوفسکی   
nemudâr-e Minkowski

Fr.: diagramme de Minkowski   

Same as → space-time diagram.

Minkowski metric; → diagram.

Minkowski metric
  متریک ِ مینکوفسکی   
metrik-e Minkofski (#)

Fr.: métrique de Minkowski   

The → metric that belongs to a four-dimensional → flat manifold and is given by ds2 = - dt2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2. Three coordinates represent → space and the fourth coordinate is devoted to → time. The Minkowski metric underlies the → geometry of → special relativity. Compare → Robertson-Walker metric.

In honor of Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909), Russian-born German mathematician, who introduced the concept of the four-dimensional nature of space-time; → metric.

Minkowski space-time
  فضا-زمان ِ مینکوفسکی   
fazâ-zamân-e Minkowski (#)

Fr.: espace-temps de Minkowski   

A completely flat four-dimensional space, which contains no gravitating matter, used in the theory of special relativity.

Minkowski metric; → space-time.

Minkowski's object
  بر‌آخت ِ مینکوفسکی   
barâxt-e Minkowski

Fr.: objet de Minkowski   

A peculiar blue object near the → elliptical galaxy NGC 541 in the → galaxy cluster Abell 194. According to several pieces of evidence, the → starburst in Minkowski's object was triggered by the → radio jet emerging from the → nucleus of the nearby → active galaxy NGC 541. This is similar to the jet-induced → star formation associated with → Centaurus A, and the radio-aligned star forming regions in powerful radio galaxies at → high redshift. Absorption and emission line measurements and broadband → SED fitting, give an age of around 7.5 Myr for Minkowski's object.

Minkowski, R., 1958, PASP, 70, 143; → object.

minor
  کهین   
kehin (#)

Fr.: mineur   

Lesser or smaller in amount, extent, or size.

From L. minor "lesser, smaller, junior," from PIE base *mei- "small" (cf. L. minuere "make small;" Gk. meion "less," minuthein "to lessen;" Skt. miyate "diminishes, declines;" O.E. minsian "to diminish").

Kehin comparative and superlative of keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few;" from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + nuance suffix.

minor axis
  آسه‌ی ِ کهین   
âse-ye kehin

Fr.: petit axe   

The axis of an ellipse that is perpendicular to the major axis at a point equidistant from the foci.

minor; → axis.

minor merger
  تشک ِ کهین   
tašk-e kehin

Fr.: fusion mineure   

The → merging in which one of the galaxies is significantly larger than the other (mass ratios above 10). The larger galaxy will often "swallow" the smaller satellite galaxy. The swallowed galaxy can trigger disk and nuclear star formation or activate a central core with shells that surround the predator.

minor; → merger.

minor planet
  سیارک   
sayyârak (#)

Fr.: petite planète   

An obsolete name used to describe an → asteroid.

minor; → planet.

minor premise
  پیشپایه‌ی ِ کهین   
pišpâye-ye kehin

Fr.: prémisse mineur   

Logic: In a → categorical syllogism, the premise containing the → minor term.

major; → premisse.

minor term
  ترم ِ کهین   
tarm-e kehin

Fr.: terme mineur   

Logic: In a → syllogism, the → subject of the → conclusion.

minor; → term.

minorant
  کهان   
kehân

Fr.: minorant   

For a function f defined on the interval I, the point m such that for each x on I, f(x)m. See also → majorant.

From Fr. minorant, from minorer "to reduce, cut," from L. → minor.

Kehân, from kehidan, from keh "small, little," → minor.

minority
  کهینی   
kehini (#)

Fr.: minorant   

The smaller number, part, or quantity of a whole.

minor; → -ity.

Mintaka (δ Orionis)
  منطقه   
Mantaqé (#)

Fr.: Mintaka   

The faintest and the westernmost of the three stars which appear in a row and make up the → Orion's Belt. It is a blue star of magnitude 2.23 lying 915 light-years away. Mintaka is in fact an → eclipsing binary with a period of 5.7 days. The main star has a → spectral type of O9.5 and radiates near 90,000 times the → solar luminosity. Mintaka is remarkable as regards the discovery of the → interstellar medium. The ISM was discovered by the German astronomer Johannes Hartmann (1855-1936) through the study of δ Orionis. He remarked that the calcium line at 3934 Å did not share in the periodic displacements of the lines caused by the orbital motion of the star. This suggested that the calcium line was not from the stars but from an intervening interstellar absorbing cloud.

Mintaka, from al-Mintaqah "the belt," from al-Mintaqah al-Jauzâ' (المنطقه‌الجوزاء) "the belt of the central one (Orion)."

minus
  کمن   
kaman

Fr.: moins   

1) (prep.) With the deduction of.
2) (adj.) → negative.
3) (n.) A deficiency or subtraction; the minus sign.

L. minus "less," neuter of minor "smaller," ultimately from PIE *mi-nu-, suffixed form of root *mei- "small;" cf. L. minuere "to diminish, lessen;" Gk. meion "less, smaller;" Av. (+ prefix *ui-) vīmītô.dantānô "with lost teeth;" O.Pers. mīθah- "damage, harm;" Mid.Pers. (+ *ui-) wmys- "to fade;" Mod.Pers. gum, gom "lost;" Ossetian minæg "weak, dim (light)" (Cheung 2007); Skt. miyate "diminishes," Russ. men'she "less;" O.E. minsian "to diminish."

Kaman, from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few" + suffix -an that occurs in many words, such as rowšan, rowzan "bright, window," anjoman "assembly, association," hâvan "mortar," mihan "homeland, dwelling," barzan "district, neighborhood," rasan "rope." These particular cases are related to Proto-Ir./Av. -ana: raocana-, hanjamana-, hāvana-, maeθana-, *varezana-, and *uraisana- respectively; other cases may have a different origin, e.g. Proto-Ir. *-an.

minute
  دقیقه   
daqiqé (#)

Fr.: minute   

A unit of angular measurement equal to one sixtieth of a degree.
A unit of time equal to one sixtieth of an hour.

From O.Fr. minut, from M.L. minuta "minute, short note," from L. minuta, feminin of minutus "small, minute." In M.L., pars minuta prima "first small part" was used by Ptolemy for "one-sixtieth of a circle," later of an hour (next in order was secunda minuta, which became second).

Daqiqé, loan from Ar. daqiqat.

Mira
  میرا   
Mirâ (#)

Fr.: Mira   

A → red giant → variable star in the constellation → Cetus, called also Omicron (ο) Ceti. Its → visual magnitude varies between 2.0 and 10.1 over a period of about 330 days, and its → spectral type between M5 and M9. Its diameter is 400-500 times that of the Sun, and it lies approximately 420 → light-years away. Mira is a → binary star, consisting of the red giant Mira A along with Mira B. It is the prototype of a class known as → long-period variables, or → Mira variables.

From L. mira "wonderful," as named by J. Hevelius (1611-1687).

Mira variable
  ورتندگان ِ میراوار   
vartandegân-e Mirâ-vâr

Fr.: variables de type Mira   

A periodic → variable star with cycles 100-500 days, and of → spectral types K, M, S, and C; also called → long-period variables.

Mira; → variable.

Mirach
  مراق   
Merâq

Fr.: Mirach   

Traditional name of → Beta Andromedae that may easily be confounded with → Merak (β Ursae Majoris).

A variant of → Merak.

Mirach's Ghost
  پرهیب ِ مراق   
parhib-e Merâq

Fr.: fantôme de Mirach   

Same as → NGC 404.

Mirach; → ghost.

mirage
  سراب   
sarâb (#)

Fr.: mirage   

An optical phenomenon caused by → refraction of light in the lowest layers of the Earth's → atmosphere especially in the → desert, over a hot pavement, or at → sea. Due to temperature variations, the air → density varies, leading to a spatial variation of the → index of refraction of → air. As a result, light from a single point takes more than one path to the observer and the → image of some distant object appears displaced from its true position; the image may appear distorted, inverted, or wavering.

From Fr. mirage, from (se) mir(er) "to look at (oneself), be reflected" (from L. mirare "to wonder at, admire") + suffix -age.

Sarâb "mirage," literally "water point, water origin, water head," probably from sar "origin, beginning," → head, + âb, → water. The similarity with Ar. serab (cf. Hebrew sharab "burning heat, parched ground") may be fortuitous.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>