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Fr.: à postériori
1) Logic: Relating to or involving inductive reasoning from particular facts or
effects to a general principle (dictionary.com).
L., literally "from what comes after," from posterior "after, later, behind," comparative of posterus "coming after, subsequent," from post "after," → post-.
Afdom "the last," Dehxodâ: afdom "last, end;" Mid.Pers. abdom, apdom; from Proto-Ir. *apatama- superlative of *apa- "away from, from;" cf. Av. apəma- "the last, the most distant;" Skt. apamá-.
Fr.: à priori
1) Logic: Relating to or involving deductive reasoning from a general
principle to the expected facts or effects (dictionary.com).
L., literally "from what comes first," from priori, ablative of prior "former, previous, first," → per-.
Partom "the first," Dehxodâ: fardom; Mid.Pers. fradom, fratom, pratom; O.Pers. fratama-; Av. fratəma- (Skt. prathama- "earliest, initial, first") superlative of fra- "before, forward, forth," cognate with Gk. and L. → pro-.
Fr.: anneau A
Fr.: étoile de type A
A star whose spectrum shows strong hydrogen → Balmer lines accompanied by many faint to moderately strong metallic lines. In contrast to B and O stars, the lines of He I and He II are absent. Their surface temperature ranges from 7,500 to 10,000 K. The main metallic lines seen in A-type stars are those of Fe I and Fe II, Cr I and II, Ti I and II, and account for about two-thirds of all lines. Some famous examples of A star are: → Sirius; → Deneb, → Altair, and → Vega. Also known as A-type star.
a- (#), an- (#); bi- (#); nâ- (#)
Prefix meaning "not."
From Gk. a-, an- "not," compare with O.Pers./Av. a-, an- "not, without," Skt. a-, an- "not," L. in-, a variant of PIE *ne- "not".
A-, an-, from O.Pers./Av. negation prefix
appearing before consonants and vowels respectively.
A couple of examples in Mod.Pers.:
amordâd "immortality, name of the fifth month in the
Iranian calendar," anušé; "fortunate, happy,"
anirani "non Iranian," âhu "vice, defect,"
âsoqdé "unburnt, half-burnt wood."
setâre-ye gune-ye A
Fr.: étoile de type A
Same as → A star.
Fr.: A/2017 U1
Fr.: paradox d'Aarau
A → thought experiment conceived by Einstein (1879-1955) at the age of sixteen in the Swiss town of Aarau where he attended the Argovian cantonal school. If an → observer moved at the → speed of light, pursuing a → beam of light, would he → observe such a beam of light as a spatially oscillatory → electromagnetic field at rest? The answer came some ten years later from Einstein himself by his theory of → special relativity. Accordingly, the speed of light is constant for all observers and no observer can move at the light velocity.
Aarau, the Swiss town, the capital of the northern Swiss canton of Aargau; → paradox.
Fr.: AB Doradus
A → quadruple system of stars consisting of two close pairs, AB Dor A / AB Dor C and AB Dor Ba / AB Dor Bb, separated by about 9 arcseconds. The brightest star of the system, AB Dor A, is a → pre-main sequence star of → spectral type K1, with strong emission at all wavelengths, from radio to X-rays. The companion of this star, i.e. component C, lying 0.185 arcseconds apart, is a very low-mass star of 0.090 → solar masses with a spectral type M 5.5 (Boccaletti et al. 2008, A&A 482, 939 and references therein).
A, a, B, b, and C designating letters of alphabet; → Dorado.
Fr.: ab initio
"From the beginning," as opposed to in medias res "starting in the middle of the story." In physics and chemistry "from first principles;" → ab initio calculation.
L. "from the beginning," from ab "from," → ab- + initio, ablative of initium "a beginning, an entrance," from inire "to go into, begin," from in- "into, in" + ire "to go" (cf. Gk. ienai "to go," Skt. eti "goes," O.Pers. aitiy "goes," Av. aeiti "goes," Mod.Pers. âyad "comes," PIE *ei- "to go, to walk").
Hac bon, from Mid.Pers. hac "from" (O.Pers. hacā "from," Av. hacā "from, out of," cf. Skt. sácā "with," PIE base *sekw- "to follow," Av. hac-, hax- "to follow," hacaiti "follows," Skt. sácate "accompanies, follows," Gk. hepesthai "to follow," L. sequi "to follow," Lith. seku "to follow") + bon "beginning, base, root" (Av. būna- "base, depth," cf. Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree").
ab initio calculation
afmâr-e hac bon
Fr.: calcul ab initio
In physics and chemistry, a calculation that relies on basic and established laws without additional assumptions or special models. Experimental input in ab initio calculations is limited to the determination of values of fundamental physical constants.
AB magnitude system
râžmân-e borz-e AB
Fr.: système de magnitudes AB
A → photometric system defined by reference to → monochromatic magnitudes in such a way that, when monochromatic → flux fν is measured in ergs sec-1 cm-2 Hz-1, the magnitude will be: AB = -2.5 logfν - 48.60. The constant is set so that AB is equal to the V magnitude for a source with a flat → spectral energy distribution. The → zero point is defined by the flux of the star → Vega at 5546 Å. In this system, an object with constant flux per unit frequency interval has zero color.
1) To leave completely and finally; forsake utterly; desert.
M.E. abando(u)nen, from M.Fr. abandoner, from O.Fr. abandoner from adverbial phrase à bandon "at will, at discretion," from à "at, to," → ad-, + bandon "power, jurisdiction," from L. bannum "proclamation."
Râcidan, related to Pers. parhêz, parhiz "to keep away from, abstain, avoid," gurêz, goriz "to flee, run away;" Av. raēc- "to leave, let;" → heritage.
Fr.: nombre d'Abbe
The reciprocal of the → dispersive power of a substance. Also known as constringence.
Abbe sine condition
butâr-e sinus-e Abbe
Fr.: condition des sinus d'Abbe
In → geometric optics, a condition for eliminating → spherical aberration and → coma in an → optical system. It is expressed by the relationship: sin u'/U' = sin u/U, where u and U are the angles, relative to the → optical axis, of any two rays as they leave the object, and u' and U' are the angles of the same rays where they reach the image plane. A system which satisfies the sine condition is called → aplanatic.
Fr.: sphère d'Abbe
Fr.: théorème d'Abel
1) If a → power series → converges
for some nonzero value
x0, then it converges absolutely for any value of x, for
which |x| < |x0|.
Named after the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1829); → theorem.
Fr.: catalogue Abell
A catalog of 4073 rich → galaxy clusters grouped by constellation and by catalog number. Published first in 1958, it contained the clusters visible from the northern hemisphere. A supplement for the southern hemisphere survey was published in 1988.
George O. Abell (1927-1983), American astronomer; → catalog.
Fr.: s'égarer, dévier
Diverge or deviate from the straight path; produce → aberration.
Aberrate, from aberrare "go astray," from ab- "away" + errare "to wander."
Birâhidan, from birâh "a devious path; a wanderer, who deviates, errs," from bi- "without" + râh "way".
1) An imperfection in the imaging properties of a → lens
or → mirror.
The main aberrations are → chromatic aberration,
→ spherical aberration, → coma,
→ astigmatism, → distortion,
and → field curvature.
Aberration, from L. aberrationem, from aberrare "go astray," → aberrate.
Birâheš, from birâidan, → aberrate.