An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique (IACT)
  تشنیک ِ وینه‌گری ِ چرنکوف ِ جوی   
tašnik-e vinagari-ye Čerenkov-e javvi

Fr.: téchnique d'imagerie Čerenkov atmosphérique   

The method used to detect very brief flashes of → Cherenkov radiation generated by the → cascade shower of → relativistic charged particles produced when a very high-energy → gamma ray (in the range 50 GeV to 50 TeV) strikes the atmosphere at a typical altitude of 10 km. Owing to this technique, it possible to discriminate cosmic gamma rays from the cosmic ray background and to determine their energy and source direction. More specifically, the incoming gamma-ray photon undergoes → pair production in the vicinity of the nucleus of an atmospheric molecule. The electron-positron pairs produced are of extremely high energy and immediately radiate in a → bremsstrahlung process. This radiation is itself extremely energetic, with many of the photons undergoing further pair production. A cascade of charged particles ensues which, due to its extreme energy, produces a flash of Cherenkov radiation lasting between 5 and 20 nano-seconds. The total area on the ground illuminated by this flash corresponds to many hundreds of square meters, which is why the effective area of IACT telescopes should be large.

imaging; → atmospheric; → Cherenkov; → technique.

imaging detector
  آشکارگر ِ وینه‌گری، ~ تصویرگری   
âškârgar-e vinegari, ~ tasvirgari

Fr.: détecteur d'image   

A detector with two-dimensional capability, such as a CCD.

image; → → scale.

immediate
  ۱) آنی، امدیم؛ ۲) امدیم   
1) âni, amadim; 2) amadim

Fr.: immédiat   

1) Occurring or accomplished without delay; following or preceding without a lapse of time. → instant.
2) Having no object or space → intervening; without intervening medium or agent; direct (Dictionary.com).

M.E. immediat, from O.Fr. immediat, from L.L. immediatus "without anything between," from → in- "not, opposite of," + mediatus, p.p. of mediare "to be in the middle," from L. medius "middle," → medium.

Âni, from ân loan from Ar. ân "time, a short time."
Amadim, literally "with nothing interposed," from the negation prefix → a- + madium, → medium.

immerge
  درمرچیدن   
darmarcidan

Fr.: immerger   

To plunge into or place under a liquid; dip; sink (Dictionary.com).

in- + merge, → submerge.

immersion
  درمرچ   
darmarc

Fr.: immersion   

The disappearance of a star, planet, moon, or other body at the beginning of an → occultation or → eclipse. Also called → ingress.

immerge.

immigrate
  درموژیدن   
darmužidan

Fr.: émigrer   

To come to a country of which one is not a native, usually for permanent residence.

in-; → migrate.

impact
  برخورد   
barxord (#)

Fr.: impact, collision   

A collision between two bodies. In the case of solar system objects, when one is much smaller than the other (like a meteoroid colliding with the Earth), a crater may be produced on the larger body.

From L. impactus, p.p. of impingere "to drive into, strike against," from → in- "in" + pangere "to fix, fasten."

Barxord, verbal noun of barxordan "to collide, clash, dash against each other," from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + xordan "to hit, strike," originally "to eat, drink, devour," and by extension "to destroy," from Mid.Pers. xvardan "to eat, enjoy (food)," Av. xvar- "to consume, eat;" Laki dialect hovârden "to eat;" Proto-Iranian *huar- "to consume, eat."

impact crater
  لاوک ِ برخورد   
lâvak-e barxord

Fr.: cratère d'impact   

A depression produced by the collision of a meteorite, asteroid, or comet with the surface of a planet or a satellite. Impact craters are the most characteristic surface features of solar system rigid bodies. They range in size up to hundreds or thousands of kilometers (where the impacts create giant basins as on the Moon, Mars, and Mercury).

impact; → crater.

impact event
  رویداد ِ برخورد   
ruydâd-e barxord

Fr.: impact cosmique   

A collision between two celestial objects, specially solar system bodies, with considerable consequences. Impact events involve release of large amounts of energy. Some examples are the 1908 Siberian → Tunguska event by a → comet, the → Barringer Crater, and the collision of an → asteroid with Earth 65 million years ago, which is thought to have led to the extinction of the dinosaurs and other species of the → Cretaceous-Paleogene period.

impact; → event.

impact hazard
  آپه‌ی ِ برخورد   
âpe-ye barxord

Fr.: risque d'impact   

The danger of collision with Earth posed by solar system small bodies that pass near our planet. These objects include → near-Earth asteroids and nuclei of → comets. See also: → near-Earth object, → impact crater, → Torino scale, → Palermo scale, → Space Situational Awareness.

impact; → hazard.

impact ionization
  یونش ِ برخوردی   
yoneš-e barxordi

Fr.: ionisation par collision   

The loss of orbital electrons by an atom of a crystal lattice which has undergone a high-energy collision.

impact; → ionization.

impact parameter
  پارامون ِ برخورد   
pârâmun-e barxord

Fr.: paramètre d'impact   

1) A measure of the distance by which a collision fails being frontal.
2) In → gravitational lensing, the distance of closest approach of the light path to the → lensing object.
3) In → rainbows, the displacement of the → incident from an axis that passes through the center of the water droplet.

impact; → parameter

impact winter
  زمستان ِ برخورد   
zemestân-e barxord

Fr.: hiver par impact   

The enormous drop in temperature and the related effects of the shrouding of Earth with soot and dust particles after the planet is struck by a sizable comet or asteroid. Such a phenomenon is believed to have killed off the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

impact; → winter.

impactite
     
impaktit, barxordit

Fr.: impactite   

A general term used for all rocks affected by, or produced by, the → shock waves and other processes generated by hypervelocity → meteorite → impact events. Impactites occur in and around the → impact crater, typically as individual bodies composed of mixtures of melt and rock fragments, often with traces of meteoritic material.

impact; → -ite.

impactor
  برخوردگر   
barxordgar

Fr.: impacteur   

A natural impacting body, such as a comet, asteroid, or planet. It can also be a space probe designed to collide with an astronomical body in the solar system.

Impactor, from → impact + -or a suffix forming agent nouns.

Barxordgar, from barxord, → impact, + -gar agent suffix, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

impart
  درپاردن   
darpârdan

Fr.: donner, transmettre, communiquer   

1) To give, convey, or grant from or as if from a store.
2) To communicate the knowledge of; disclose.

M.E., from O.Fr. impartir, from L.L. impartire "to share in, divide with another, communicate," from assimilated form of → in- "into, in" + partire "to divide, → part."

Darpârdan, from dar-, → in-, + pâr, → part, Mid.Pers. pârag "part, portion; gift, offering;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" + -dan infinitive suffix.

impedance
  پاگیری   
pâgiri (#)

Fr.: impédance   

General: The ratio of a quantity with the nature of a force to a related quantity with the nature of a current.
Electricity: The apparent opposition in an electrical circuit to the flow of an alternating current that is analogous to the actual electrical resistance to a direct current and that is the ratio of effective electromotive force to the effective current

From impede, from L. impedire "to entangle," literally "to shackle the feet," from in- "in" + pes (gen. pedis) "foot" + -ance a suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives in -ant or from verbs.

Pâgiri, verbal noun of pâgir "impedder, impeded; hinderer, hindered," from "foot, step" (from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, gen. podos; L. pes, gen. pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + gir present stem of gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

imperare (L.)
  پرماتیدن   
parmâtidan

Fr.: inperare (L.)   

Latin verb meaning "to command, rule, reign."

L. imperare "to command, give orders, exercise authority," from → in- "into, in" + parare "to make ready, supply, order," related to parire "produce, give birth to," from PIE root *pere- "to produce, procure;" cf. Skt. prthukah "child, calf, young of an animal;" Gk. poris "calf, bull;" Czech spratek "brat, premature calf;" Lith. periu, pereti "to brood;" O.H.G. farro, Ger. Farre, Du. varre "bull," O.E. fearr "bull;" see below for possible Iranian cognates.

Parmâtidan, from BMP plm'(d)y "to command, order," Sogd. framat- "to command," variants of farmudan, farmâyidan "to command, to order," ultimately from prefixed Proto-Ir. *fra-maH-, from *maH- "to measure," → experiment.

imperative
  ۱) پرماته؛ ۲) پرماتی   
1) parmâte; 2) parmâti

Fr.: 1) inpératif; 2) impériux   

1a) A command or order.
1b) → imperative case.
2a) Absolutely necessary or required; extremely important.
2b) Of the nature of or expressing a command; commanding.

From L.L. imperativus "pertaining to a command," from imperat-, p.p. stem of → imperare "to command."

Parmât, noun from present stem of parmâtidan, → imperare; parmâtii, adj. from parmât.

imperative case
  کاته‌ی ِ پرماتی، ~ فرمانی   
kâte-ye parmâti, ~ farmâni

Fr.: cas impératif   

The grammatical mood of a verb that expresses a command or a request, as in close the door!.

imperative; → case.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>