An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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flux
  شار   
šâr (#)

Fr.: flux   

The amount of energy, fluid, or particles passing in a given direction in a unit of time.

O.Fr. flux, from L. fluxus, p.p. of fluere "to flow," PIE base *bhleug- (cf. L. flumen "river;" Gk. phluein "to boil over, bubble up," phlein "to abound").

Šâr "outpouring of water, wine, etc.," šâridan "to flow (as rivers), with a great noise; to pour," âbšâr "waterfall;" saršâr "overflowing; brim-full;" Ossetic ægzælyn "to pour down;" Pashto zγâstəl/zγâl- "to swim;" Av. γžār- "to flow;" cf. Skt. ksar- "to flow;" Gk. phtheirein "to destroy, perish."

flux calibration
  کبیزش ِ شار   
kabizeš-e šârr

Fr.: calibration de flux   

The → calibration of the flux received by a detector in terms of absolute units.

flux; → calibration.

flux density
  چگالی ِ شار   
cagâli-ye šârr

Fr.: densité de flux   

Flux of radiation that falls on a detector per unit surface area of the detector per unit bandwidth of the radiation per unit time.

flux; → density.

flux unit
  یکای ِ شار   
yekâ-ye šârr

Fr.: unité de flux   

In radio astronomy, same as → jansky (symbol Jy), a unit of electromagnetic flux equivalent to 10-26 watts per square meter per Hertz.

flux; → density.

fluxion
  فلوکسیون   
fluksion

Fr.: fluxion   

In Newton's work on → calculus, the rate of change of a fluent (i.e. a flowing quantity), today commonly known as → variable. For a fluent x, the fluxion is denoted dx/dt. An obsolete mathematical term.

From L. → fluxion-, stem of fluere "to flow," → flux.

fly
  پرواز کردن، پروازیدن   
parvâz kardan (#), parvâzidan (#)

Fr.: voler   

To move through the air using wings. Travel through the air or outer space.

M.E. flien, O.E. fleogan; cognate with O.H.G. fliogan, Ger. fliegen, O.Norse fljuga.

Infinitive from parvâz, → flight.

flyby
  برواز   
barvâz

Fr.: survol   

A trajectory that takes a → space probe close to a Solar System body (planet, satellite, asteroid, comet) but does not permit it to enter an orbit about the body.

fly + by, from M.E., from O.E. be or bi, from P.Gmc. *bi "around, about" (cf. Du. bij, Ger. bei "by, at, near"), from *umbi, (cf. L. ambi "around, about," Gk. amphi "around, about," Skt. abhi "on both sides," Av. aibi, aiwi, O.Pers. aiby "to, against, in addition to," Mid.Pers. aw-, ab-, Mod.Pers. af- (as in afzudan "to increase, add," afruxtan "to inflame, kindle, blaze," afqân "lamentation, groaning, cires for help").

Barvâz, from bar- "on, up; upon, over," → on-, + vâz, as in parvâz, → flight.

focal
  کانونی   
kânuni (#)

Fr.: focal   

Of or relating to a focus; placed at or measured from a focus.

focus + → -al.

focal distance
  دورای ِ کانونی   
durâ-ye kânuni

Fr.: distance focale   

same as → focal length.

focal; → distance.

focal length
  درازای ِ کانونی   
derâzâ-ye kânuni

Fr.: longueur focale   

The distance between the optical center of a lens, or the surface of a mirror, and its focus.

focal; → distance.

focal plane
  هامن ِ کانونی   
hâmon-e kânuni

Fr.: plan focal   

A plane at right angles to the principal axis of a lens or mirror on which the best image is formed.

focal; → plane.

focal point
  نقطه‌ی ِ کانونی   
noqte-ye kânuni

Fr.: point focal   

Same as → focus.

focal; → point.

focal ratio
  وابر ِ کانونی   
vâbar-e kânuni

Fr.: rapport focal   

The ratio of the → focal length of a reflecting surface or lens to its effective diameter, i.e. to its → aperture. The smaller the focal ratio, the smaller the image scale and the more luminous the image for a given aperture.

focal; → ratio.

focal reducer
  کاهنده‌ی ِ کانونی، باز‌هازنده‌ی ِ ~   
kâhande-ye kânuni, bâzhâzande-ye ~

Fr.: réducteur focal   

An optical component or system for changing the image scale of a telescope to achieve a better match between the → seeing disk and the → pixel size.

focal; → reducer.

focus
  ۱) کانون؛ ۲) کانونیدن   
1) kânun; 2) kânunidan

Fr.: 1) foyer; 2) focaliser   

1) (n.) A point where parallel light rays from an object are gathered together by a lens or a concave mirror. It is the place where the clearest image of a distant object forms. Also called focal point. See also → focal distance.
2) (v.) To adjust the eyepiece or objective of a telescope so that the image is clearly seen by the observer.

From L. focus "hearth, fireplace," of unknown origin,

Kânun "hearth, fireplace."

focused
  کانونیده   
kânunidé

Fr.: focalisé   

Of an optical system, being in focus or brought into focus; adjusted to produce a clear image.

Past participle of → focus.

focusing
  کانونش   
kânuneš

Fr.: focalisation   

The act of bringing into focus.

Noun of → focus.

fog
  مه   
meh (#)

Fr.: brouillard   

A mass or layer of suspended water droplets or ice crystals near the surface of the earth, reducing visibility.

From Dan. fog "spray, shower, snowdrift," related to O.N. fok "snow flurry."

Meh "fog" (variants miq, mož, Tabari miyâ, Lori/Laki (kara) mozy, Ossetic mig/megæ), from Mid.Pers. mēq "cloud, mist," Av. mēγa- "cloud;" cf. Skt. meghá- "cloud, overcast weather;" Gk. omikhle "mist;" Lith. miglà "mist, haze;" PIE base *mighlā- "cloud."

fogbow
  مه‌کمان   
meh-kamân

Fr.: arc blanc   

A large, faintly colored, circular arc formed by light (usually sunlight) falling on cloud or fog. Also called → cloudbow.

fog; → bow.

Fokker-Planck equation
  هموگش ِ فوکر-پلانک   
hamugeš-e Fokker-Planck

Fr.: équation de Fokker-Planck   

A modified form of → Boltzmann's equation allowing for collision terms in an approximate way. It describes the rate of change of a particle's velocity as a result of small-angle collisional deflections.

After Dutch physicist Adriaan Fokker (1887-1972) and the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947); → equation.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>