An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
normal dispersion
  پاشش ِ هنجارمند   
pâšeš-e hanjârmand

Fr.: dispersion normale   

The dispersion in which a shorter wavelength is associated with a higher → refractive index. Contrasted with the → anomalous dispersion.

normal; → dispersion.

normal distribution
  واباژش ِ هنجارور   
vâbâžeš-e hanjârvar

Fr.: distribution normale   

A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean. Same as → Gaussian distribution.

normal; → distribution.

normal state
  حالت ِ هنجارور   
hâlat-e hanjârvar

Fr.: état fondamental   

Of an atom, the same as → ground state.

normal; → state.

normality
  هنجاروری   
hanjârvari

Fr.: normalité   

General: The fact or condition of being normal.
Chemistry: Measure of the number of gram-equivalent weights of a compound per liter of solution.

From → normal + → -ity.

normalization
  هنجارورش   
hanjârvareš

Fr.: normalisation   

1) A mathematical technique for adjusting a series of values (typically representing a set of measurements) according to some transformation function in order to make them comparable with some specific point of reference.
2) Process of introducing a numerical factor into an equation so that the area under the corresponding graph (if finite) shall be made equal to unity.
3) To change in scale so that the sum of squares or the integral of squares of the transformed quantity is zero.

Verbal noun of → normalize.

normalize
  هنجاروریدن، هنجارور کردن   
hanjârvaridan, hanjârvar kardan

Fr.: normaliser   

To change in scale so that the sum of squares, or the integral of the square, of the transformed quantity is unity.

normal + → -ize.

normalized
  هنجاروریده، هنجارور شده   
hanjârvaridé, hanjârver šodé

Fr.: normalisé   

The quality of something that has undergone → normalization.

P.p. of → normalize.

normalized Hubble parameter
  پارامون ِ هابل ِ هنجاروریده   
pârâmun-e Hubble-e hanjârvaridé

Fr.: paramètre Hubble normalisé   

A dimensionless parameter expressed by h(z) = H(z)/H0, where H(z) is the → Hubble parameter at → redshift z and H0 is the → Hubble constant.

normalized; → Hubble; → parameter.

north
  هودر   
hudar

Fr.: nord   

The → cardinal point at which the → meridian cuts the → horizon below the → north celestial pole.

M.E., O.E. norð, from P.Gmc. *nurtha- (cf. O.N. norðr, M.Du. nort, Du. noord, Ger. nord), ultimately from PIE *ner- "left, below."

Note: North is related to left since it is to the left when one faces the rising Sun. This occurs in, for example, the etymology of E. north, as above. The same goes for Ar. shimal, which also means "left."
Hudar, from hu(y), from Mid.Pers. hôy "left, left hand," from Av. haoiia- "left" (cf. Skt. savyá- "left hand;" O.C.S. šuji; Rus. šuj; Welsh aswy; PIE *seujos) + -dar, from -tar direction suffix, as in Mid.Pers. ošastar "east" (Av. ušastara- "easthern"), dôšastar "west" (Av. daôšatara-, daôšastara- "western"), abâxtar "north" (Av. apāxtara- "northern"), Mod.Pers. bâxtar, → west.

North America Nebula
  میغ ِ آمریکای ِ هودری   
miq-e Âmrikâ-ye hudari

Fr.: Nébuleuse de l'Amérique du Nord   

An → H II region in → Cygnus, also known as NGC 7000, resembling the continent North America in long exposure images. This nebula is lying three degrees from bright star → Deneb and spans on the sky over four times the angular size of the full Moon. A dark lane separates the North America Nebula from the → Pelican Nebula, actually part of the same enormous cloud some 2,000 → light-years away.

It was first photographed in 1890 by Max Wolf (1863-1932), a German astronomer, who also first called it the North America Nebula because of its resemblance to the Earth's continent. America, from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512), who made two trips to the New World as a navigator and claimed to have discovered it. The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil; → nebula.

north celestial pole
  قطب ِ آسمانی ِ هودر   
qotb-e âsmâni-ye hudar

Fr.: pôle nord céleste   

The point in the → northern hemisphere where the → rotation axis of Earth touches the → celestial sphere. The star → Polaris, also called the Pole Star, is located very near this point, at an angular separation of 42 degrees (about 1.4 lunar diameters).

north; → celestial; → pole.

North point
  نقطه‌ی ِ هودر   
noqte-ye hudar

Fr.: point Nord   

The point on → horizon in direction of → geographic north pole.

north; → point.

North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD)
  لردهای ِ لایه-لایه‌ی ِ قطب ِ هودر   
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Hudar

Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle nord   

A large area of the north polar region of Mars which is covered with alternating layers of water ice and dust. → South Polar Layered Deposits.

north; → polar; → layer; → deposit.

North Polar Spur
  شخاک ِ کهکشانی ِ هودری   
šaxâk-e kahkešâni-ye hudari

Fr.: éperon galactique nord   

One of the largest coherent structures in the radio sky, projecting from the → Galactic plane at → Galactic longitudel ~ 20° and extending to a very high → Galactic latitudeb ~ +80°. It was first identified in low frequency → radio surveys in the 1950s. The spur is also prominent in → soft X-rays. Its origins and nature have long been debated. However, what causes this phenomena is not well understood. It may be due to a combination of → OB associations and → supernova explosions.

north; → polar; → spur.

north pole
  قطب ِ هودر   
qotb-e hudar

Fr.: pôle nord   

1) An → imaginary → point in the → northern hemisphere representing the intersection of the → Earth's → rotation axis with the → globe or with the → celestial sphere.
2) For a → magnet, the pole which points toward the geographic north.
3) In a → magnetic field, the point from where a → line of force is leaves for the → south pole.

north; → pole.

North Pole Star
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطب ِ هودر   
setâre-ye qotb-e hudar

Fr.: étoile du pole Nord   

A star that lies on the → rotation axis of the Earth in the north hemisphere. The → Pole Star is not, in the long term, permanently fixed to the → celestial pole. This is because of the Earth's → axial precession which gradually moves the celestial poles in the sky. It takes about 26,000 years for the precession to turn the pole a full circuit. Currently the North Pole Star is → Polaris, which will continue to mark the north celestial pole for several more centuries. But, around 4,000 B.C. → Gamma Cephei will become the North Pole Star. Around 7,500 B.C., → Alderamin will take up the role. And it will be the brilliant → Vega's (Alpha Lyrae) turn in about 12,000 years. In the past, about 3,000 B.C., → Thuban (Alpha Draconis) was the North Pole Star. Then → Kokab (Beta Ursae Majoris) became the Pole Star from 1500 B.C. to 500 A.D. before leaving the task to Polaris.

north; → pole; → star.

North Star
  ستاره‌ی ِ هودر   
setâre-ye hudar

Fr.: étoile du Nord   

North Pole Star; → Polaris.

north; → star.

northern
  هودری   
hudari

Fr.: nord   

1) Lying toward or situated in the → north.
2) North of the → celestial equator or of the → zodiac.

M.E., from O.E. norþerna, norðerne "northern," from norð "northern" + + -erne, suffix denoting direction

Hudari, relating to hudar, → north.

Northern Cross
  چلیپای ِ هودری   
calipâ-ye hudari

Fr.: Croix du Nord   

An arrangement of stars in the form of a cross in the constellation → Cygnus.

north; → cross.

northern hemisphere
  نیم‌سپهر ِ هودری   
nimsepehr-e hudari

Fr.: hémisphère nord   

The half of the → Earth or another → astronomical object between the → north pole and the → equator.

northern; → hemisphere.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>