An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
charge exchange
  گهولش ِ بار   
gahuleš-e bâr

Fr.: échande de charge   

A collisional process in which an → ion collides with a neutral → atom or → molecule and captures one of its electrons. One of the most important charge-exchange processes occurring in the → interstellar medium is: O+ + H → H+ + O + 0.020 eV.

charge; → exchange.

charge invariance
  ناورتایی ِ بار   
nâvartâyi-ye bâr

Fr.: invariance de charge   

The → electric charge carried by an object is independent of the → velocity of the object with respect to the → observer. In other words, the charge is the same in any → frame of reference.

charge; → invariance.

charge symmetry
  همامونی ِ بار   
hamâmuni-ye bâr

Fr.: symétrie de charge   

Same as → charge conjugation and → C-symmetry.

charge; → symmetry.

charge trap
  تله‌ی ِ بار   
tale-ye bâr

Fr.: piège à charge   

Defects or impurities in a CCD structure which prevent charges in certain pixels from being transferred to the next pixel.

charge; trap, from O.E. træppe "snare, trap," from P.Gmc. *trap-.

Talé "trap," Mid.Pers. talag "trap, snare."

charge-coupled device (CCD)
  دستگاه ِ جفسری ِ بار   
dastgâh-e jafsari-ye bâr, sisidi

Fr.: dispositif à transfert de charge   

A solid-state detector that stores the electrons, produced by incident photons, in potential wells at the surface of a semiconductor. The packages of charge are moved about the surface by being transferred to similar adjacent potential wells. The wells are controlled by the manipulation of voltage applied to surface electrodes.

charge; coupled adj. from → couple; → device.

charge-injection device (CID)
  دستگاه ِ درشانش ِ بار   
dastrgâh-e daršâneš-e bâr

Fr.: dispositif à injection de charge   

A charge-transfer device that passes along stored charges positioned at predetermined locations; it is used as an image sensor in which the image points are accessed by reference to their horizontal and vertical coordinates.

charge; → injection; → device.

charge-parity symmetry
  همامونی ِ بار-همالی   
hamâmuni-ye bâr-hamâli

Fr.: symétrie charge-parité   

The laws of physics should be the same if a particle is interchanged with its → antiparticle (→ charge conjugation), or swapped for its mirror image (→ parity symmetry). It is known that charge-parity (CP) symmetry holds for interactions involving → electromagnetism, → gravitation, and → strong interactions, but CP violation is known to occur during → weak interactions involved in → radio decay. Same as → CP-symmetry.

charge; → parity; → symmetry.

charge-transfer device
  دستگاه ِ تراوژ ِ بار   
dastgâh-e tarâvaž-e bâr

Fr.: dispositif de transfert de charge   

A semi-conductor device that relays stored charges positioned at predetermined locations, such as charge-coupled or charge-injection devices.

charge; → transfer; → device.

charge-transfer efficiency (CTE)
  کارایی ِ تراوژ ِ بار   
kârâyi-ye tarâvaž-e bâr

Fr.: efficacité de transfert de charge   

Fraction of the original charge which is successfully transferred from one pixel to the next in one CCD cycle.

charge; → transfer; → efficiency.

charged
  باردار   
bârdâr (#)

Fr.: chargé   

Quality of a → particle, → body, or → system that possesses → electric charge

Past participle of "to → charge."

Bârdâr "charged," from bâr, → cahrge, + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support."

charged particle
  ذره‌ی ِ باردار   
zarre-ye bârdâr (#)

Fr.: particule chargée   

Any particle containing either a → positive or → negative → electric charge.

charged; → particle.

Chariklo
  خاریکلو   
Xâriklo

Fr.: Chariklo   

An → asteroid that belongs to the class of → Centaurs (discovered through stellar → occultation observations). At just 250 km across, Chariklo is the smallest body so far found to have rings. There are two dense rings, with respective widths of about 7 and 3 km, → optical depth of 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii of 391 and 405 km (see F. Braga-Ribas et al. Nature, 2014, 26 March).

From Khariklo, the name of a nymph in Greek mythology, the wife of → Chiron and the daughter of → Apollo.

Charles' law
  قانون ِ شارل   
qânun-e Charles (#)

Fr.: loi de Charles   

The volume of a fixed mass of any gas increases for each degree rise in temperature by a constant fraction of the volume at 0° C, the pressure being constant throughout.

Named after Jacques Charles (1746-1823), French physicist, who first discovered the law, and who was responsible for the first balloon ascents using hydrogen.

Charon
  خارون   
Xâron (#)

Fr.: Charon   

The largest satellite of Pluto. It is about 1,040 km across, roughly half Pluto's diameter. Charon is unusual in that it is the largest moon with respect to its primary planet in the Solar System. Moreover, the Pluto-Charon system is extraordinary because the center of mass lies in open space between the two, a characteristic of a double planet system. Pluto and Charon are also tidally locked in a synchronous orbit. Pluto's rotational period is 6.39 Earth days. It takes 6.39 days for Charon to make one revolution around Pluto. Thus, the two bodies continuously face each other. Also called Pluto I.

In Gk. mythology, Xαρον (Charon) was a figure who ferried the dead across the river Styx into Hades (the underworld).

Charpak's detector
  آشکارگر ِ شرپک   
âškârgar-e Charpak

Fr.: détecteur de Charpak   

An elementary particle detector using a special apparatus capable of operating at high rates. The detector consists of an → array of many closely spaced parallel wires, or → anodes, in an enclosure filled with a carefully chosen gas. The wires, being placed between two → cathode plates, are under high voltage. Each wire acts as an independent → proportional counter. The particle that passes through the chamber will ionize surrounding gaseous atoms. The resulting ions and electrons are accelerated by the electric field around the wire, causing a localized cascade of ionization which brings about an electric current proportional to the energy of the detected particle. Previous detectors, such as the → bubble chamber, could record the tracks left by particles on photographic emulsions at the rate of only one or two per second. In comparison, the multiwire chamber records up to one million tracks per second in three dimensions with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimeter and moreover sends the data directly to a computer for analysis. The speed and precision of the multiwire chamber has revolutionized high-energy physics. For instance it was crucial in finding the predicted → W boson and → Z boson of the → electroweak interaction theory. Charpak's chamber also has applications in medicine, biology, and industry. Also called → multiwire proportional chamber.

In honor of Georges Charpak (1924-2010), a French physicist, who built the first detector of this type in 1968. He received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1992; → detector.

chasma
  کرز   
karz

Fr.: chasme   

In astrogeology, long, narrow, steep sided depressions on planets and Moon, for example, Melas Chasma and Candor Chasma on Mars.

L. chasma, from Gk. khasma "yawning hollow, gulf," related to khaskein "to yawn," and thus to → chaos (1).

Karz "big fissure in a mountain," from Qâeni dialect.

Chelyabinsk meteor
  شهاب ِ چلیابینسک   
šahâb-e Chelyabinsk

Fr.: météore de Tcheliabinsk   

A → meteor exploded on February 15, 2013 over Chelyabinsk, southern Russia.The explosion occurred at a height of 20 km above Earth, releasing 500 kilotons → TNT equivalent of energy, approximately 30 times the yield of the nuclear bomb over Hiroshima. It caused a → shock wave that damaged 7,200 buildings in six Russian cities and injured some 1,500 people, mainly from flying glass. Later, about five tons of meteoritic material reached the ground, including a 650 kg → meteorite that was recovered by divers from the bottom of Lake Chebarkul, on the slopes of the southern Ural mountains. With an estimated initial mass of about 12,000-13,000 metric tons, and measuring about 20 m in diameter, it is the largest known natural object to have entered Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 → Tunguska event.

Chelyabinsk, a city in Russia, the capital of the Chelyabinsk region, on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains on the Miass River, 200 km south of Ekaterinburg and 1,879 km east of Moscow. The population of Chelyabinsk is about 1,183,000 (2015), the area, 530 sq. km; → meteor.

chemi-
  شیمی-   
šimi- (#)

Fr.: chimi-   

A combining form meaning "chemical, chemically induced, chemistry," used in the formation of compound terms like → chemosynthesis. Also chem- (before a vowel) and chemo-.

Chemi- extracted from → chemical or → chemistry.

chemical
  شیمیایی، شیمیک   
šimiyâyi (#), šimik

Fr.: chimique   

Of, relating to, used in, or produced by means of chemistry.

From chemic "of alchemy," → chemistry + → -al.

Šimiyâyi, of or pertaining to šimichemistry.
Šimik, from šim- + -ik, → -ic.

chemical abundance
  فراوانی ِ شیمیایی   
farâvâni-ye šimiyâyi (#)

Fr.: abondance chimique   

The relative amount of a given → chemical element or → chemical compound with respect to another element or compound in a given sample.

chemical; → abundance.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>