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M.E., OE; cf. O.Fris., Du. winter, O.S., O.H.G. wintar, Ger. winter, Dan., Swed. vinter, Goth. wintrus "winter"),
Zemestân "winter," related to zam "cold," Mid.Pers. zam, zamistân "winter;" Av. zimô "winter;" cf. Skt. hima- "cold, frost;" Ossetic zymæg/zumæg "winter;" Gk. xeimon "winter;" L. hiems "winter;" Lith. ziema "winter;" PIE *gheim- "snow, winter."
Fr.: solstice d'hiver
The moment in the northern hemisphere when the → Sun attains its lowest → declination of -23°26' (or -23°.44) with respect the → equator plane. It happens when the Earth's axis is orientated directly away from the Sun, on 21 or 22 December. During the northern winter solstice the Sun appears to be directly overhead at noon for places situated at → latitude 23.44 degrees south, known as the → tropic of Capricorn. The winter solstice can occur at any moment during the day. Two successive winter solstices are shifted in time by about 6 h. The winter solstice in the northern hemisphere is the → summer solstice in the southern hemisphere.
A slender flexible thread or rod of metal.
M.E., O.E. wir, cf. O.N. viravirka "filigree work," Swed. vira "to twist," O.H.G. wiara "fine gold work."
Sim "wire," initially "strand of silver," from sim "silver," from Mid.Pers. asêm "silver," from Gk. asemon "without mark, uncoined, shapeless, formless," from argurion asemon "uncoined money." For semantic similarity, see → silver.
The quality or state of being → wise; knowledge of what is true or right coupled with just judgment as to action; sagacity, discernment, or insight (Dictionary.com). Wisdom is gained over the years through experience. It is the insight in knowing the probable outcome learned through experience. In contrast, → reason is using the → rational → reasoning to evaluate pros and cons in making a decision.
Xerad "understanding, judjement, intellect, wisdom;" Mid.Pers. xrad "reason, intellect, intelligence, wisdom, understanding;" O.Pers. xraθu- "wisdom;" Av. xratu- "intelligence, understanding, wisdom; will, purpose, council;" cf. Skt. krátu- "power, will-power;" Gk. kratos "power, strength."
Having the power of discerning and judging properly as to what is true or right; possessing discernment, judgment, or discretion (Dictionary.com).
From M.E. wis, wys, from O.E. wis ("wise"), cognate with Du. wijs, Ger. weise, Norw. and Swed. vis.
Xeradmand, from xerad, → wisdom, + -mand relatrion and possession suffix.
Fr.: Wolf-Rayet WN
A → Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum is dominated by emission lines of ionized nitrogen: N II 3995 Å, N III 4634-4661 Å, N III 5314 Å, N IV 3479-3484 Å, N IV 4058 Å, N V 4603 Å, N V 4619 Å, and N V 4933-4944 Å. This type is divided in sub-types WN2 to WN11.
Fr.: étoile WN/WC
An object showing signatures of both → WN Wolf-Rayet stars and → WC Wolf-Rayet stars in the same spectrum, originating from individual stars rather than from WN + WC → binary systems. Such a WN/WC signature implies that the surface composition of the star is → nitrogen and → carbon enriched. This hybrid state results from a mixing process between He-burning → convective core and the overlying nitrogen enriched layers. According to model predictions, this situation corresponds to a short transition phase, lasting 103 to 104 years, during which a WN star evolves into a WC star. The WN/WC stars so far detected are all of early types.
Fr.: étoile WN10
Fr.: étoile WN11
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N II 3995 Å as strong as He II 4686 Å, N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å weak or absent, Balmer lines, He I with → P Cygni profile.
Fr.: étoile WN2
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N V 4603, 4619 Å weak or absent,He II 4686 Å strong.
Fr.: étoile WN2.5
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N V 4603, 4619 Å present, N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å absent.
Fr.: étoile WN3
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å very weaker than N V 3479-3484, 4058 Å and N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å weak or absent.
Fr.: étoile WN3/O3
A new type of → Wolf-Rayet stars found in the → Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars have both strong → emission lines, as well as → He II lines and → Balmer lines in absorption and spectroscopically resemble a → WN3 and → O3V binary pair. However, they are visually too faint to be WN3+O3 V → binary systems. So far nine WN3/O3 types have been detected, making up ~ 6% of the population of LMC WRs. Their temperatures are estimated to be around 100,000 K, a bit hotter than the majority of → WN Wolf-Rayet stars (by around 10,000 K) although a few hotter WNs are known. The abundances are what you would expect for → CNO equilibrium. However, most anomalous are their → mass-loss rates which are more like that of an → O star than a WN star. While their evolutionary status is uncertain, their low mass-loss rates and → wind velocities suggest that they are not products of homogeneous evolution. It is possible instead that these stars represent an intermediate stage between O stars and WNs. Since WN3/O3 stars are unknown in the Milky Way, their formation would depend upon → metallicity (Neugent et al., 2017, arxiv:1704.05497).
Fr.: étoile WN4
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å about N V 3479-3484, 4058 Å and N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å weak or absent.
Fr.: étoile WN4.5
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å stronger than N V 3479-3484, 4058 Å and N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å weak or absent.
Fr.: étoile WN5
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å as strong as N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å as strong as N V 3479-3484, 4058 Å.
Fr.: étoile WN6
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å about N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å and N V 3479-3484, 4058 Å present, but weak.
Fr.: étoile WN7
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å stronger than N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å, N III weaker than He II 4686 Å, He I weak with → P Cygni profile.
Fr.: étoile WN8
A → WN Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum shows the following emission line characteristics: N III 4634-4641, 5314 Å very stronger than N IV 3479-3484, 4058 Å, N III about He II 4686 Å, and He I with → P Cygni profile.