An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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obscurantism
  تاریک‌اندیشی، تاریک‌ورزی   
târikandiši, târikvarzi

Fr.: obscurantisme   

1) Opposition to the spread of knowledge; a policy of withholding knowledge from the general public.
2) A style (as in literature or art) characterized by deliberate vagueness or abstruseness (Merriam-Webster.com).

From Fr. obscurantisme (1819), from obscurant, from obscure, from L. obscurus "dark, dusky," figuratively "unknown; unintelligible," from ob- "over" + -scurus "covered," from PIE *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal;" → -ism.

obscuration
  تیره‌کرد، تیره‌شد   
tirekard, tirešod

Fr.: obscurcissement   

1) The act of obscuring.
2) The state of being obscured.

obscure; → -tion.

obscure
  ۱) تیره؛ ۲) تیره‌کردن   
1) tiré (#); 2) tiré kardan (#)

Fr.: 1) obscur; 2) obscurcir   

1a) Lacking in light or illumination; dark; dim; murky.
1b) Indistinct to the sight or any other sense.
1c) Not clear to the understanding.
2) To make dark, dim, indistinct, etc.

From O.Fr. obscur "dark, dim, not clear," from L. obscurus "covered over, dark, obscure," from ob "over" + -scurus "covered," from PIE *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal;" from which derives also the term → sky.

Tiré, from Mid.Pers. târag "dark, turbid," related to târik "dark," Mid.Pers. târig "dark," târ "darkness," Av. taθra- "darkness," taθrya- "dark," cf. Skt. támisrâ- "darkness, dark night," L. tenebrae "darkness," Hittite taš(u)uant- "blind," O.H.G. demar "twilight."
Tiré kardan compound verb with kardan "to do," → -ize.

obscuring torus
  چنبر ِ تیره‌ساز   
canbar-e tiresâz

Fr.: tore obscurcissant   

A structure of dust and gas postulated to surround the central → black hole in an → active galactic nucleus (AGN). The presence of an obscuring torus allows the unification of the two main types of AGNs containing a → broad-line region (Type I) and a → narrow-line region (Type II), respectively. In this unified model, the two types represent the same sort of object, the appearance of which depends on the viewer's → line of sight. The best evidence for this model comes from spectropolarimetry observations of some type II AGNs in which broad → emission lines are seen in → polarized light, as would happen if the broad-line region truly were hidden, and the light were being reflected off the torus and into the viewer's line of sight.

obscure; → torus.

obscurity
  تیرگی   
tiregi (#)

Fr.: obscurité   

The state or quality of being obscure.

obscure + → -ity.

observability
  نپاهش‌پذیری   
nepâhešpaziri

Fr.: observabilité   

1) General: The character of something that can be observed.
2) Astro.: The possibility that an object be observable at a particular time.
3) Control theory: A measure for how well internal states of a system can be inferred by knowledge of its external outputs.

From → observable + → -ity.

observable
  نپاهیدنی، نپاهش‌پذیر   
nepâhidani, nepâhešpazir

Fr.: observable   

1) Capable of being or liable to be observed.
2) A quantity that can be measured.
3) Quantum mechanics: A → real dynamical variable whose → eigenstates form a → complete set.

From → observe + → -able.

observable universe
  گیتی ِ نپاهیدنی، ~ نپاهش‌پذیر   
giti-ye nepâhidani, ~ nepâhešpazir

Fr.: univers observable   

The extent of the Universe that we can see with the aid of the largest telescopes. Its ultimate boundary is determined by the → cosmic horizon size.

observable; → universe.

observance
  نپاهداری   
nepâhdâri

Fr.: observance, observation   

1) An act or instance of following a custom, rule, or law.
2) A customary practice, rite, or ceremony; a rule governing members of a religious order.
3) An act or instance of watching (Merriam-Webster.com).

observe; → -ance.

Nepâhdâri, on the model of negâhdâri "preservation, protection," from nepâhdâr, → observant, + -i.

observant
  نپاهدار   
nepâhdâr

Fr.: observateur, perspicace   

1) Paying strict attention.
2) Careful in observing (Merriam-Webster.com).

observe + -ant, a suffix forming adjective, → -ance.

Nepâhdâr, from nepâh present stem of nepâhidan, → observe, + dâr preset stem and agent noun of dâštan, dâridan "to have, hold, maintain, possess," → protected band.

observation
  نپاهش، نپاه   
nepâheš, nepâh

Fr.: observation   

1) Act or instance of observing; → observe.
2) Careful watching of an astronomical object or event using appropriate instruments, usually for collecting data.

Verbal noun of → observe.

observational
  نپاهشی   
nepâheši

Fr.: observationnel   

Pertaining to, or founded on observation, especially based on observation rather than theory.

Adj. of → observation.

observational astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک ِ نپاهشی   
axtarfizik-e nepâheši

Fr.: astrophysique observationnelle   

That part of astrophysics that is mainly concerned with the collection of observational data, in comparison with theoretical astrophysics

observational; → astrophysics.

observational bias
  وَرک ِ نپاهشی   
varak-e nepâheši

Fr.: biais observationnel   

An error in observation arising from systematically favoring brighter or weaker objects or some particular object morphologies; e.g. → Malmquist bias.

observational; → bias.

observational cosmology
  کیهان‌شناسی ِ نپاهشی   
keyhânšenâsi-ye nepâheši

Fr.: cosmologie observationnelle   

The application of observational data to the study of the Universe as a whole.

observational; → cosmology.

observational effect
  ا ُسکر ِ نپاهشی   
oskar-e nepâheši

Fr.: effet observationnel   

A feature appearing in an observation, which is not intrinsic to the object observed, but is due to the inappropriate method used (e.g. limited angular resolution).

observational; → effect.

observational error
  ایرنگ ِ نپاهشی   
irang-e nepâheši

Fr.: erreur observationnelle   

The difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value.

observational; → error.

observatory
  نپاهشگاه   
nepâhešgâh

Fr.: observatoire   

A place or building equipped for making observations of astronomical, meteorological, or other natural phenomena, especially a place provided with a telescope for observing astronomical objects.

From Fr. observatoire, from L. observa(re), → observe, + -toire, from L. -torius, from -tor a suffix forming agent nouns + -ius adj. suffix.

Nepâhešgâh, from nepâheš, → observation, + -gâh suffix of place (O.Pers. gāθu-, Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot" (Skt. gátu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode," PIE *gwem- "to go, come").

observe
  نپاهیدن   
nepâhidan

Fr.: observer   

To watch carefully or note for a scientific or special purpose, e.g. to observe a star (astronomy), to observe the behavior of a patient (medicine, psychology), an animal (ethology, zoology), social groups (sociology), etc.

From O.Fr. observer, from L. observare "watch over, look to, attend to, guard," from ob "over" + servare "to watch, keep safe," from PIE base *ser- "to protect;" cf. Av. har- "to guard, observe, pay attention to," haraiti "guards, keeps," harətar- "protector, watcher," harəθra- "guarding, protection," hāra- "watched, guarded," Mod.Pers. zinhâr "beware!, mind!," Gk. heros "protector, hero."

Note 1: Observation is the most important basis of empirical sciences. All theories rely on observation, and must finally be supported by observational evidence. Persian, in contrast to European languages, lacks a distinct term that recognizes observation as a conceptual premise of sciences. In astronomy the Ar. rasad (رصد) is currently used, while in classical astronomical texts the Pers. pâyidan (پاییدن) is used mainly by prominent figures like Biruni and Tusi. However, the term rasad is never used for cases outside astronomy. The situation for other sciences is not clear. Often one resorts to the Ar. loanword mošâhedé "to look at each other," which lacks ability to form derivatives. Therefore, here we suggest a term that can be used in all fields of knowledge.

Nepâhian, from ne- + pâhidan. The prefix ne- "down; into" (as in negâh "look, glance," negaristan "to view, look at," nešastan "to sit down," nemudan "to display") from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down, into;" cf. Skt. ni "down," nitaram "downward," Gk. neiothen "from below," cf. E. nether, O.E. niþera, neoþera "down, downward, below, beneath," from P.Gmc. *nitheraz, Du. neder, Ger. nieder; PIE *ni- "down, below."
The second component pâhidan, variants pâyidan, pâsidan "to watch, observe, look steadily;" Mid.Pers. pây- "to protect, guard;" Sogdian p'y "to observe, protect, watch over;" O.Pers. pā- "to protect," pāta- "protected;" Av. pā- "to protect," pāti "guards," nipā(y)- (with ni-) "to watch, observe, guard," nipātar- "protector, watcher," nipāθri- "protectress;" cf. Skt. pā- "to protect, keep," tanû.pā- "protecting the body," paś.pā- "shepherd;" Gk. poma "lid, cover," poimen "shepherd;" L. pascere "to put out to graze," pastor "shepherd;" Lith. piemuo "shepherd;" PIE base *pā- "to protect, feed."

Note 2: Since pây-, pâyidan is used for → conserve, we adopt the variant pâh-, pâhidan, which is extant in Lâri and Gerâši dialects; cf. Gilaki pâstan, pâssan "to guard, pay attention." In fact the interchange of phonemes h, i and s is not rare in Indo-European languages.

Note 3: Examples of pâyidan "to observe" in astronomy, from Biruni's al-Tafhim (written c. 1029 A.D.)
p. 313: و بپای ارتفاع آ فتاب را.
p. 64: و بپای تا بدایره اندر آید.

Note 4: As indicated above, nepâh- exists in Av. as nipāy- "to watch, protect."

observed
  نپاهیده   
nepâhidé

Fr.: observé   

Pertaining to a value which has been measured, in contrast to one which is computed.

Past participle of → observe.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>