An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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emphasis
  براوژ   
barâvaž

Fr.: accentuation, accent   

Special stress laid upon, or importance attached to (Dictionary.com).

From L. emphasis, from Gk. emphasis "significance, implied meaning," from emphainein "to show, indicate," from en "in" + phainein "to show." It developed a sense of "extra stress" laid on a word or words to make the significance clear, or to show their importance.

Barâvaž, present stem of barâvažidan, literally "to speak loudly," from bar- "on, upon, up," → over-, + âvaž variant of âvâz "voice, sound, noise, clamour," cf. Sariqoli awuj "voice, sound," Wakhi awôγ "voice, sound," related to vâž, → word.

emphasize
  براوژیدن   
barâvažidan

Fr.: appuyer sur, insister sur, souligner   

To give → emphasis to; lay stress upon; stress (Dictionary.com).

emphasis + → -ize.

emphatic
  براوژی   
barâvaži

Fr.: énergique, catégorique   

1) Uttered, or to be uttered, with emphasis; strongly expressive.
2) Using emphasis in speech or action (Dictionary.com).

From Gk. emphatikos, variant of emphantikos, from emphainein, → emphasis.

Barâvaži, from barâvaž + -i adj. suffix.

empire
  پرماتگان، امپراتوری، شاهنشاهی   
parmâtgân, emperâturi, šâhanšâhi

Fr.: empire   

1) A political unit having an extensive territory or comprising a number of territories or nations and ruled by a single supreme authority.
2) The territory included in such a unit (TheFreeDictionary).

M.E., from O.Fr. empire "rule, authority, kingdom," from L. imperium "command, dominion, sovereignty," from → imperare "to command."

Parmâtgân, from parmât, present stem of parmâtidan, → imperare, + -gân suffix denoting relation and place appearinfg in the name of lands and localities (Šâpurgân, Gorgân, Golpâyegân, etc.).

empirical
  آروینی   
ârvini (#)

Fr.: empirique   

Based on the results of → experiment and → observation only, without → theory.

From L. empiricus, from Gk. empeirikos "experienced," from empeiria "experience," from empeiros "skilled," from en- "in" + peira "experiment."

Ârvini, adj. of ârvin "experience, experiment, test," from prefixed Av. vaēn- (Mod.Pers. bin, present stem of didan "to see, look") "to see," aibī-vaēn- "to look, notice;" cf. Parthian Mid.Pers. frwyn- "to foresee," frwyng "foreseeing," frwyngyft "foresight," from Proto-Iranian *fra-uain.

empirical formula
  دیسول ِ آروینی   
disul-e ârvini

Fr.: formule empirique   

1) In physics, a mathematical equation that predicts observed results, but has no known theoretical basis to explain why it works.
2) In chemistry, a simple expression of the relative number of each type of atom in a chemical compound.

empirical; → formula

empirical science
  دانش ِ آروینی   
dâneš-e ârvini

Fr.: science empirique   

A branch of knowledge, including → natural sciences and → social sciences, that is based on observable phenomena and must be capable of being verified by observation.

empirical; → science.

empiricism
  آروین‌باوری، آروین‌گرایی   
ârvin-bâvari, ârvin-geraayi

Fr.: empirisme   

1) Philo.: The doctrine that all → knowledge of matters of fact derives from experience and that the mind is not furnished with a set of concepts in advance of experience.
2) The use of empirical methods (Dictionary.com).

From empiric, → empirical, + → -ism.

empty
  تهی   
tohi (#)

Fr.: vide   

Containing nothing; having none of the usual or appropriate contents (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. æmettig "vacant, not occupied," from æmetta "a leisure," from æ "not" + -metta, from motan "to have."

Tohi "empty," → void.

empty graph
  نگاره‌ی ِ تهی   
negâre-ye tohi

Fr.: graphe vide   

In → graph theory, a graph with any number of → vertices which do not have → edges.

empty; → graph.

empty set
  هنگرد ِ تهی   
hangard-e tohi

Fr.: ensemble vide   

A set containing no → elements.

empty; → set.

empty Universe
  گیتی ِ تهی   
giti-ye tohi

Fr.: Univers vide   

A → cosmological model based on → Einstein's field equations in which the → Universe is devoid of → matter and → radiation. There are two types of empty Universes: the → de Sitter Universe and the → Milne Universe.

empty; → Universe.

Enceladus (Saturn II)
  انکلادوس   
Enkelâdos (#)

Fr.: Encelade   

The eighth of → Saturn's known → satellites, discovered by Herschel in 1789. It is about 500 km in diameter and orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 238,000 km with a period of 1.37 days. Enceladus has the highest → albedo (> 0.9) of any body in the → Solar System. Its surface is dominated by clean ice. Geophysical data from the → Cassini-Huygens spacecraft imply the presence of a global → ocean below an ice shell with an average thickness of 20-25 km, thinning to just 1-5 km over the south polar region. There, → jets of → water vapor and icy grains are launched through fissures in the → ice. The composition of the ejected material measured by Cassini includes salts and silica dust. In order to explain these observations, an abnormally high heat power is required, about 100 times more than is expected to be generated by the natural → decay of → radioactive elements in rocks in its core, as well as a means of focusing activity at the south pole. According to simulations, the core is made of unconsolidated, easily deformable, porous rock that water can easily permeate. The → tidal friction from Saturn is thought to be at the origin of the eruptions deforming the icy shell by push-pull motions as the moon follows an elliptical path around the giant planet. But the energy produced by tidal friction in the ice, by itself, would be too weak to counterbalance the heat loss seen from the ocean; the globe would freeze within 30 million years. More than 10 GW of heat can be generated by tidal friction inside the rocky core. Water transport in the tidally heated permeable core results in hot narrow upwellings with temperatures exceeding 90 °C, characterized by powerful (1-5 GW) hotspots at the seafloor, particularly at the south pole. The release of heat in narrow regions favors intense interaction between water and rock, and the transport of hydrothermal products from the core to the plume sources (Choblet et al., 2017, Nature Astronomy, doi:10.1038/s41550-017-0289-8)

In Gk. mythology Enceladus was a Titan who battled Athene in their war against the gods. When he fled the battlefield, Athene crushed him beneath the Sicilian Mount Etna.

Enkelâdos, from the original Gk. pronunciation of the name.

Encke gap
  گاف ِ انکه   
gâf-e Enke

Fr.: division de Encke   

A region of decreased brightness within the A ring of Saturn.

In honor of Johann Franz Encke, → Encke's comet. Gap, from O.N. gap "chasm," related to gapa "to gape."

Gâf, variant kâf "split, slit," stem of kâftan, kâvidan "to split; to dig," Mid./Mod.Pers. škâf- škâftan "to split, burst," Proto-Iranian *kap-, *kaf- "to split;" cf. Gk. skaptein "to dig;" L. scabere "to scratch, scrape," P.Gmc. *skabanan (Goth. skaban; Ger. schaben; E. shave). PIE base *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack."

Encke's comet
  دنباله دار ِ انکه   
donbâledâr-e Enké (#)

Fr.: comète de Encke   

A faint comet with the shortest known period (about 3.30 years). Its semimajor axis is 2.21 AU and aphelion 4.1 AU. it is the parent body of the Taurids meteor shower. The comet was first observed in 1786 by the French astronomer Pierre Méchain.

Named after the German astronomer Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865), who in 1819 computed its orbit and proved that sightings of apparently different comets in 1786, 1795, 1805, and 1818 were in fact appearances of the same comet. → comet.

encode
  رمزاندن، رمز‌گذاشتن   
ramzândan, ramz gozâštan

Fr.: codage   

To convert (data, information) into another format by → encoding. See also → decode and → encrypt.

From en- "in; into" + → code.

Ramzândan, infinitive from ramz, → code. Ramz gozâštan, from ramz + gozâštan "to place, put," → nomenclature.

encoder
  رمزانشگر   
ramzânešgar

Fr.: encodeur   

An electronic device or software program used to convert (a message, information, data) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer.

encode; → -er.

encoding
  رمزانش، رمز‌گذاری   
ramzâneš, ramz gozâri

Fr.: coder   

A process used for transforming data into another format by means of a scheme that is publicly available so that it can easily be reversed. See also → decoding and → encryption.

encode; → -ing.

encounter
  رویارویی   
ruyâruyi (#)

Fr.: rencontre   

General: A meeting, especially one that is unplanned, unexpected, or brief. An often violent meeting; a clash.
Coming across of two bodies (as two stars in a cluster) which results in the deviation from original directions of motion. → close encounter; → strong encounter; → weak encounter.

From O.Fr. encountrer "confront," from encontre "against, counter to," from L.L. incontra "in front of," from L. in- "in" + contra "against."

Ruyâruyi "being face to face," from ru, ruy "face, countenance," variant rox (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face," Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + euphonic interfix -â- + ruy + noun suffix -i.

encrypt
  درنهاندن   
darnehândan

Fr.: crypter   

To convert (information or data) into a system of symbols, especially to prevent unauthorized access. See also → decrypt and → encode.

From en- "in; into" + L. crypt, from Gk. kryptos "hidden, concealed, secret" + → -tion.

Darnahândan, from dar-, → in- + nahândan "to hide, conceal," from nahân "concealed, hid; clandestine;" Mid.Pers. nihân "secrecy, a secret place, a hiding place," nihânik "concealed;" Av. niδāti- "deposing, deposit."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>