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Fr.: violation de la parité
In quantum mechanics, the condition of → parity in the → weak interaction. For example, the emitted → beta particles in → radioactive decay of → cobalt-60 nuclei are not equally distributed between the two poles of cobalt-60. More beta particles emerge from one pole than the other, and it would be possible to distinguish the mirror image nuclei from their counterparts.
Fr.: instabilité de Parker
A type of instability found in some astrophysical phenomena involving → magnetic fields; it arises if a gas layer is supported by the horizontal magnetic fields against → gravity. Also called → magnetic buoyancy. Briefly, this instability works as follows. Consider a uniform disk of gas which is coupled to a magnetici field that is parallel to the disk. Suppose that the disk is gravitationally stratified in the vertical direction, and is in dynamical equilibrium under the balance of gravity and pressure (thermal and magnetic). Now consider a small perturbation which causes the field lines to rise in certain parts of the disk and sink in others. Because of gravity, the gas loaded onto the field lines tends to slide off the peaks and and sink into the valleys. The increase of mass loads in the valleys makes them sink further, while the magnetic pressure causes the peaks to rise as their mass load decreases. Consequently, the initial perturbation is amplified, causing the production of density fluctuations in an initially uniform disk. The characteristic scale for the Parker instability is ~4πH, where H is the scale height of the diffuse component of the disk. For the Milky Way, where H ~ 150 pc, this scale is about 1-2 kpc. Numerical simulations show that the density contrast generated by the Parker instability is generally of order unity before the instability saturates. This implies that the Parker instability on its own may not be able to drive collapse on large scales. Nevertheless, it may trigger gravitational instability in a marginally unstable disk and/or induce strong motions in the medium, thereby acting as a source of turbulence on large scales (see, e.g., Houjun Mo, Frank van den Bosch, Simon White, 2010, Galaxy Formation and Evolution, The University Press, Cambridge, UK).
First studied by E. N. Parker, 1966, ApJ 145, 811; → instability.
Parker Solar Probe
gomâne-ye xoršidi-ye Parker
Fr.: Parker Solar Probe
A NASA space mission launched on August 12, 2018 to study the outer corona of the Sun at very close distances. Parker Solar Probe is the first space mission to penetrate into solar corona as close as about 10 solar radii. It will approach the Sun to this distance 25 times. Approaching the Sun to such distances is a big technological challenge. The main goals of the mission are to answer these questions: Why is the solar corona so hotter than the solar surface? How is the solar wind accelerated? How are the energetic particles produced and transported?
Named after the physicist Eugene Newman Parker (1927-), who proposed the existence of the solar wind and did pioneering work for its interpretation.
Parkes Selected Region (PSR)
nâhiye-ye gozide-ye Parkes
Fr.: Région sélectionnée de Parkes
A catalog of 397 radio sources between declinations +20° and +27° which were compiled from a finding survey made at 635 MHz with the 64m radio telescope at the Australian National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Parkes, N.S.W. and published in 1968. Originally abbreviated PSR, this catalog, which is also called PKS, replaces and improves on four earlier lists (1964 to 1966).
A basic unit of astronomical distances, corresponding to a → trigonometric parallax of one second of arc. In other words, it is the distance at which one → astronomical unit (the mean radius of the Earth's orbit) subtends an angle of 1 arcsecond. 1 pc = 3.2616 → light-years = 206 265 astronomical units = 30.857 x 1012 km.
From parallax + second.
An optical phenomenon resulting from the refraction and reflection of moonlight within ice crystals in cirrus cloud; also known as paraselene, mock Moon or moondog. It is the lunar counterpart of the → parhelion.
From Gk. para- "beside," → para-, + selene "moon," from Gk. selene "moon," related to selas "light, brightness, flame."
Fr.: théorème de Parseval
A theorem relating the → Fourier coefficients to the function that they describe. It states that: (1/L) ∫ |f(x)|2dx (integrated from x0 to x0 + L) = (a0/2)2 + (1/2) Σ (ar2 + br2) (summed from r = 1 to ∞). In other words, the sum of the moduli squared of the complex Fourier coefficients is equal to the average value of |f(x)|2 over one period.
Named after Marc-Antoine Parseval (1755-1836), French mathematician; → theorem.
1) A portion or division of a whole that is separate or distinct; piece, fragment, fraction,
or section; constituent.
M.E., from O.Fr. part "share, portion; character; dominion; side, path," from L. partem (nominative pars) "a part, piece, a share, a division; a party or faction," related to portio "share, portion," from PIE root *per- "to assign, allot;" cf. Pers. pâr, pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" as below.
Pâr, variant pâré "piece, part, portion," parré "portion, segment (of an orange)," pargâlé, "piece, portion; patch;" (dialects Kermâni pariké "portion, half;" Tabari perik "minute quantity, particle;" Lârestâni pakva "patch;" Borujerdi parru "patch"); Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" L. pars, as above; Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble."
pâri (#), pârâl
Being such in part only; not total or general; incomplete.
Fr.: dérivée partielle
The derivative of a function of two or more variables, e.g., z = f(x,y), with respect to one of the variables, the others being considered constants (denoted ∂z / ∂x).
partial differential equation
hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vâxane-ye pâri
Fr.: équation différentielle aux dérivées partielles
A type of differential equation involving an unknown function (or functions) of several independent variables and its (or their) partial derivatives with respect to those variables.
Fr.: éclipse partielle
partial ionization zone
zonâr-e yoneš-e pâri
Fr.: zone d'ionisation partielle
One of several zones of the stellar interior where increased → opacity can provide the → kappa mechanism to drive → pulsations. See also → Kramers' law. In these zones where the gases are partially ionized, part of the energy released during a layer's compression can be used for further ionization, rather than raising the temperature of the gas. Partial ionization zones modulate the flow of energy through the layers of the star and are the direct cause of → stellar pulsation. The partial ionization zones were first identified by the Russian astronomer Sergei A. Zhevakin (1916-2001) in the 1950s. In most stars there are two main ionization zones. The hydrogen partial ionization zone where both the ionization of neutral hydrogen (H ↔ H+ + e-) and the first ionization of helium (He ↔ He+ + e-) occurs in layers with a characteristic temperature of 1.5 x 104 K. The second, deeper zone is called the He+ partial ionization zone, and involves the second ionization of helium (He+↔ He++ + e-), which occurs deeper at a characteristic temperature of 4 x 104 K. The location of these ionization zones within the star determines its pulsational properties. In fact if the → effective temperature of the star is ≥ 7500 K, the pulsation is not active, because the ionization zones will be located very near to the surface. In this region the density is quite low and there is not enough mass available to drive the oscillations. This explains the blue (hot) edge of the instability strip on the → H-R diagram. Otherwise if a star's surface temperature is too low, ≤ 5500 K, the onset of efficient convection in its outer layers may dampen the oscillations. The red (cool) edge of the instability strip is believed to be the result of the damping effect of convection. He+ ionization is the driving agent in → Cepheids. See also → gamma mechanism.
partial lunar eclipse
Fr.: éclipse partielle de lune
partial solar eclipse
Fr.: éclipse partielle de soleil
râstini-ye pâri, ~ pârâl
Fr.: vérité partielle
To take part, be or become actively involved.
An act or instance of participating. The fact of taking part.
Verbal noun of → participate.
A lexical form derived from a verb, that has some of the characteristics and functions of both verbs and adjectives. In most Indo-European languages participles are used to express participation in an action (present participle) or relate to a completed action (past participle). They can also appear in attributive form as adjectives.
M.E., from O.Fr. participle, variant of participe, from L. participium, literally "a sharing, partaking," from particeps "sharing, partaking," → participate.
Pârgerté, from pârgert present stem of pârgertidan, → participate, + nuance suffix -é.
1) , 2) zarré (#), 1), 2), 3) pârul
1) A unit of → matter smaller than the
→ atom or its main components.
The term particle also includes any (currently hypothetical) new particles
that might be discovered, such as the supersymmetric partners of the
→ quarks and → leptons
and → bosons.
From L. particula "little bit or part," diminutive of pars (genitive partis), from PIE base *per- "to assign, allot;" cf. Mid.Pers. pârag "gift, offering, bribe;" Mod.Pers. pâreh "gift" (→ partial); Gk. porein "to provide, give, grant," peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purtá- "gift, pay, reward."