An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
baro-
  فشار-   
fešâr- (#)

Fr.: baro-   

A prefix meaning → pressure used in the formation of compound words, such as → baroclinic, → barometer, → barotropic.

Baro- combining form of Gk. baros "weight;" cognate with Pers. bâr "weight," gerân "heavy;" cf. Skt. guru, L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" PIE *bher- "carry, give birth."

Fešâr-, → pressure.

baroclinic
  فشارشیبی   
fešâršibi

Fr.: barocline   

Of, pertaining to, or characterized by → baroclinicity. Sometimes called → barocline.

baro-; → -cline; → -ic.

baroclinic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارشیبی   
nâpâydâri-ye fešâršibi

Fr.: instabilité barocline   

1) A type of instability occurring within a rapidly → rotating star where non-axisymmetric motions can separate surfaces of constant pressure from → equipotential surfaces.
2) A hydrodynamic instability associated with a baroclinic layer of the atmosphere. It arises from temperature variation along the pressure surfaces. Baroclinic instability is associated with the vertical → shear of the mean flow, which is related to the horizontal temperature gradient by the thermal wind equation. Instabilities in a baroclinic region grow by converting potential energy associated with the mean horizontal temperature gradient into kinetic energy through ascending warm air and descending cold air (Rasmussen & Turner (eds.), Polar Lows, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003).

baroclinic; → instability.

baroclinicity
  فشارشیبی   
fešâršibi

Fr.: baroclinie   

The state of stratification in a fluid in which surfaces of constant pressure do not coincide with those of constant density, but intersect. Where baroclinicity is zero, the fluid is → barotropic. Same as baroclinity.

baroclinic; → -ity.

barometer
  فشارسنج   
fešârsanj (#)

Fr.: baromètre   

Instrument for measuring the atmospheric pressure. It is used in determining height above sea level and predicting changes in weather.

baro- + → -meter.

barometric law
  قانون ِ فشارسنجی، ~ فشارسنجیک   
qânun-e fešârsanji, ~ fešârsanjik

Fr.: loi barométrique   

The atmospheric pressure decreases exponentially from any reference surface as the altitude increases.

barometer; → law.

Qânun, → law, fešârsanji, fešârsanjik "barometric," from fešârsanj, → barometer.

barotropic
  فشارگرد   
fešârgard

Fr.: barotrope   

In a fluid, conditions where surfaces of constant pressure are parallel to surfaces of constant temperature. This state is equivalent to zero → baroclinicity.

baro-; → -tropic.

barotropic gas
  گاز ِ فشارگرد   
gâz-e fešârgard

Fr.: gaz barotrope   

A gas whose density is a function solely of pressure.

barotropic; → gas.

barotropic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارگرد   
nâpâydâri-ye fešârgard

Fr.: instabilité barotrope   

A hydrodynamical instability that arises when the horizontal → shear gradient becomes very large. Barotropic instabilities grow by extracting kinetic energy from the mean flow field.

barotropic; → instability.

barotropy
  فشارگردی   
fešârgardi

Fr.: barotropie   

A state of a fluid in which the surfaces of constant density coincide with surfaces of constant pressure (isobaric).

barotropic gas.

barred
  میله‌دار، میله‌ای   
miledâr, milei

Fr.: barré   

Having a bar like structure.

bar.

barred Magellanic spiral
  مارپیچ ِ میله‌دار ِ ماژلانی   
mârpic-e mile-dâr-e Mâželâni

Fr.: spirtale barée magellanique   

A transitional class of object between the classic spiral galaxies and true irregular systems. The → Large Magellanic Cloud, the nearest and best studied example of the class, is, contrary to popular opinion, not an irregular galaxy. The LMC and other members of the SBm class have definite structural signatures. They are generally dominated by a pronounced asymmetric bar -- one that is offset from the optical center of the galaxy -- with a nascent spiral arm emanating from one end. As is the case with irregular galaxies, the optical centers of SBm type systems are not particularly special places. Disk systems later than Sc characteristically lack a central stellar concentration in addition to having weak spiral structure; this is true of SBm-type galaxies. SBm galaxies are typically very active in their star formation activity, often containing a large star-forming complex situated at one end of the bar. Beyond these general trends there is a tremendous amount of dispersion in physical properties within the SBm class, particularly in the strength of the spiral structure. At one extreme are the "one-armed" spirals such as NGC 3664 and NGC 4027 which are dominated by single, looping spiral arm. On the other hand NGC 4861 shows little evidence of spiral structure and it is dominated by a large star-forming complex at one end of its bar. The class smoothly leads to the Barred Magellanic irregulars (IBm) which show no indication of spiral structure (Wilcots et al. 1996, AJ 111, 1575).

Magellanic; → spiral; → galaxy.

barred spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ میله‌دار، ~ ~ میله‌ای   
kahkašân-e mârpic-e miledâr

Fr.: galaxie spirale barrée   

A → spiral galaxy that exhibits a bar-shaped structure in its nucleus. → galactic bar.

barred; → spiral; → galaxy.

barrel distortion
  چولگی ِ چلیکی   
cowlegi-ye celiki (#)

Fr.: distortion en barillet   

A defect in an optical system in which magnification decreases with distance from the optical axis, whereby the image of a square appears barrel-shaped. Opposite of → pincushion distortion.

Barrel, M.E. barel, from O.Fr. baril; → distortion.

Cowlegi, → distortion; celiki, relating to celik "barrel".

barrier
  ورغه   
varqé (#)

Fr.: barrière   

General: Anything that prevents passage or blocks.
Physics: 1) A region where the potential energy is greater than the total energy of a particle, whereby the particle cannot go through.
2) The depletion layer of a P-N junction in a diode.

O.F. barrière "obstacle," from V.L. *barraria, from *barra "bar, barrier."

Varqé, from varq "a mound, a dam" + nuance suffix. Varq is probably related to Av. vâra- "barrage," vara- "enclosure," var- "castle," Mid.Pers. var "enclosure," from Av. root var- "to cover, to conceal;" variants: barq (Torbat Heydariyei), valgâ (štiyâni), var (Qomi); cf. Skt. vatra- "a dike, a dam,"varana- "rampart, wall," from vr- "to obstruct, close, cover, hide; to choose."

Barringer Crater
  لاوک ِ برینگر   
lâvak-e Barringer

Fr.: cratère Barringer   

Same as → Meteor Crater.

Names after Daniel Barringer (1860-1929), American geologist, who bought the Crater in 1903, convinced that it was made by a huge → meteorite; → crater.

barycenter
  گرانیگاه   
gerânigâh (#)

Fr.: barycentre   

The center of mass of a system of bodies.

From Gk. barus "heavy," → bar, + → center.

Gerânigâh, from gerâni "weight;" cognate with Gk. barus, → bar, + gâh "place."

Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB)
  زمان ِ همارا‌ی ِ گرانیگاهی   
zamân-e hamârâ-ye gerânigâhi

Fr.: temps-coordonnée barycentrique (TCB)   

A → coordinate time having its spatial origin at the solar system barycenter. It is intended to be used as the independent variable of time for all calculations pertaining to orbits of planets, asteroids, comets, and interplanetary spacecraft in the solar system. → Barycentric Dynamical Time (IDB).

barycenter; → coordinate; → time.

Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB)
  زمان ِ توانیک ِ گرانیگاهی   
zamân-e tavânik-e gerânigâhi

Fr.: temps dynamique barycentrique (TDB)   

A time scale previously used in calculations of the orbits of solar system objects (planets, asteroids, comets, and interplanetary spacecrafts). It was based on the Terrestrial Dynamical Time, but took the relativistic effect of time dilation into account to move the origin to the solar system barycenter. It is now superseded by → Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB).

barycenter; → dynamical; → time.

Barycentric Julian Date (BJD)
  گاهداد ِ ژولی‌ین ِ گرانیگاهی   
gâhdâd-e žulian-e gerânigâhi

Fr.: date julienne barycentrique   

The → Julian Date referenced to the → barycenter of the → solar system. The BJD is more precise than the → Heliocentric Julian Day because the Sun is not stationary. It moves due to the → gravitational attraction of Jupiter and the other planets.

barycentric; → Julian Date.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>