An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
meso-
  مسو-   
meso-

Fr.: meso-   

A combining form meaning "middle," used in the formation of compound words; e.g. → meson; → mesosphere.

From Gk. mesos "middle, in the middle;" akin to L. medius, Pers. miyân, → middle; → medium.

Meso-, loan from Gk.

meson
  مسون   
meson

Fr.: méson   

A nuclear particle with a mass intermediate between that of a proton and an electron, which is believed to be responsible for the strong nuclear force. In contrast to the case of baryons or leptons, meson number is not conserved: like photons, mesons can be created or destroyed in arbitrary numbers. Their charge can be positive, negative, or zero.

From mes-, meso-, from Gk. mesos "middle," akin to L. medius, Pers. miyân, → medium, → middle, + -on a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles.

mesosiderite
  مسوسیدریت   
mesosiderit

Fr.: mesosidérite   

A class of → meteorites that is → brecciatedstony-iron with nearly equal amounts of → metal and → silicates.

meso-; → siderite.

mesosphere
  مسوسپهر   
mesosepehr

Fr.: mésosphère   

The layer of the atmosphere located between the → stratosphere and the → ionosphere, where temperature drops rapidly with increasing height. It extends between 17 to 80 kilometers above the Earth's surface.

meso-; → sphere.

message
  پیام   
payâm (#)

Fr.: message   

1) General: A piece of information (written, spoken, or by signals).
2) Computer science: A defined amount of information, coded or not, between machines or machines and men. → information theory.

M.E., from O.Fr. message "message, news, embassy," from M.L. missaticum, from L. missus "a sending away, dispatching," from mittere "to send," → mission.

Payâm, variants payqâm, peyqâm, Mid.Pers. paygâm, ultimately from *patigam-, literally "arriving, newcomer," from *pati- "to, toward, at, in," → ad hoc, + *gam- "to come," → heliosheath.

messenger
  پیامبر   
payâmbar (#)

Fr.: messager   

One who brings → messages.

From M.E. messengere, messingere, messangere, from O.Fr. messanger, a variant of messagier, from → message + → -er.

Payâmbar "messenger," from payâm, → message, + bar "carrier," from bordan "carry," → vector.

MESSENGER spacecraft
  فضاناو ِ مسنجر   
fazânâv-e MESSENGER

Fr.: sonde MESSENGER   

A NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet → Mercury for more than four years, between 2011 and 2015. Among its accomplishments, the mission determined Mercury's surface composition, revealed its geological history, discovered details about its internal magnetic field, and verified its polar deposits are dominantly water-ice. → Mercury's tail.

Messenger, short for "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", a reference to the → messenger god Mercury from Roman mythology; → spacecraft.

Messier catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ مسیه   
kâtâlog-e Messier

Fr.: catalogue de Messier   

A catalog of more than 100 nebulous-appearing astronomical objects, initially established to avoid confusion with comets. These objects are now well known to be among the brightest and most striking gaseous nebulae, star clusters, and galaxies. The designations of the catalog are still used in identification; e.g. M1 is the Crab Nebula (in Taurus).

In honor of the French astronomer Charles Messier (1730-1817), who compiled the list between 1760 and 1784 in order to avoid confusion with comets; → catalog.

Messier object
  بر‌آخت ِ مسیه   
barâxt-e Messier

Fr.: objet de Messier   

Any of the nebulous-looking → astronomical objects listed in the → Messier catalog.

Messier catalog; → object.

Mestel theory
  نگره‌ی ِ مستل   
negare-ye Mestel

Fr.: théorie de Mestel   

The first quantitative model showing that the energy of → white dwarfs is the leftover heat from the star's past nuclear fusion that leaks slowly into space. In this analytic model constructed by Mestel (1952), a white dwarf consists of two layers. The inner layer, which contains most of the mass, is assumed to be → isothermal because of efficient thermal conductivity by the → degenerate electrons. Moreover, it is supposed that the electrons do not contribute significantly to the → heat capacity. The heat capacity comes entirely from the ions, which are assumed to behave as a classical → ideal gas. The thin non-degenerate outer layer forms an insulating blanket and controls the rate at which the energy from the ion reservoir is leaked out into space. The specific rate is controlled by the radiative opacity at the boundary between these two layers, and is assumed to obey → Kramers' opacity law. The Mestel theory shows that the cooling rate of a white dwarf is proportional to its temperature (hotter white dwarfs cool faster), and gives a relationship between the luminosity (L) of the white dwarf and the cooling time: t ∝ L-5/7. More recent models take into account some or all of the following processes neglected in the Mestel theory: neutrino cooling (important for L > 10-1.5 Lsun), latent heat of crystallization release (important for L < 10-4 Lsun), nuclear energy generation via proton-proton burning (important when MH ≥ 10-4 M*), and gravitational energy release from surface layers. The Mestel theory is a very good approximation of more recent calculations. For a review of the Mestel theory see Van Horn (1971, IAU Symp. 42, 97; W. J. Luyten, Editor), Wood (1990, J. Roy. Astro. Soc. Canada 84, 150), and Kepler and Brdaley (1995, Baltic Astron. 4, 166).

Named after Leon Mestel (1927-), British astrophysicist, who put forward this theory in 1952 (MNRAS, 112, 583); → theory.

Meszaros effect
  اسکر ِ مسزاروس   
oskar-e Meszaros

Fr.: effet de Meszaros   

Reduced growth or stagnation undergone by → cold dark matter perturbations during the period when the → early Universe was → radiation-dominated. The photons cannot collapse, and by their pressure prevent the matter to do so, when radiation dominates. Matter pertubation (collapse) remains frozen until the density equality between radiation and matter.

Péter Mészáros, 1974, A&A 37, 225; → effect.

meta-
  مَتا-   
matâ- (#)

Fr.: méta-   

A prefix appearing in loanwords from Gk., with the meanings 1) "after, behind;" 2) "changed, altered;" 3) "higher, beyond." → metagalaxy; metaphysics; → metastable.

From Gk. meta (prepositin) "in the midst of, among, with, after," originally me-ta (Mycenaean Greek), from PIE *me- "in the middle" (cf. Goth. miþ, O.E. mið "with, together with, among," E. with).

Matâ-, from Av. matay-, mati- "protrusion of mountain range," framanyente "to be protruding, jutting;" from PIE base *men- "to stand out, to project;" cf. L. mons (genitive montis) "mountain," minere "to project, jut, threaten" (other related terms: mouth, prominent, amount, etc.).

metadata
  متا-داده‌ها   
matâ-dâdhâ

Fr.: métadonnées   

Specifically defined data elements that describe how and when a particular set of data was collected, and how it is formatted. Metadata is used to organize, manipulate, and work with data when it is not necessary or desired to actually deal with the data itself. The reason is that the metadata is usually far smaller and easier to work with than the data that it represents.

meta-; → data.

metagalaxy
  مَتا-کهکشان   
matâ-kahkešân

Fr.: métagalaxie   

An obsolete term which once denoted the entire system of galaxies including the Milky Way.

meta-; → galaxy.

metal
  فلز   
felez (#)

Fr.: métal   

1) Chemistry: An → element in which the highest occupied energy band (→ conduction band) is only partially filled with electrons.
2) Astrophysics: Conventionally, any element heavier than → helium. The term "metal," as used for this concept, is in fact inappropriate. Same as → heavy element. See also → metallicity.

From O.Fr. metal, from L. metallum "metal, mine, quarry, what is got by mining," from Gk. metallon "metal, ore," originally "mine, quarry, pit," probably from metalleuein "to mine, to quarry," of unknown origin, but related somehow to metallan "to seek after."

Felez "metal," loanword from Ar. filizz.

metal deficiency
  کم‌فلزی   
kamfelezi

Fr.: déficience en métaux   

The quality of being metal deficient, e.g. → metal-deficient galaxy.

metal; deficiency from L. deficientem (nominative deficiens), pr.p. of deficere "to desert, fail," from → de- "down, away" + facere "to do, perform" + -ency a noun suffix, equivalent to -ence.

Kamfelezi, from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few," related to keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + felezmetal + -i suffix denoting state.

metal-deficient galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کم‌فلز   
kahkešân-e kamfelez

Fr.: galaxie pauvre en métaux   

A galaxy whose → metallicity is smaller than that of the → Milky Way galaxy.

Adj. from → metal deficiency; → galaxy.

metal-poor
  کم‌فلز   
kamfelez

Fr.: pauvre en métaux   

Describing an → astronomical object in which the → chemical abundances of → heavy elements are lower than that of a reference value (usually solar or of Milky Way).

metal; → poor.

metal-poor galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کم‌فلز   
kahkešân-e kamfelez

Fr.: galaxie pauvre en métaux   

Same as → metal-deficient galaxy.

metal; → poor; → galaxy.

metal-rich environment
  پرگیر ِ پرفلز   
pargir-e porfelez

Fr.: environnement riche en métaux   

An environment (→ galaxy, → nebula) whose → metallicity is larger than that of the → Milky Way galaxy.

metal; → rich; → environment.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>